Social Movement + New S.M. + Env. Movement


When un-packing social movement, new social movement and environmental movement we find that they are interlinked. There are major similarities, commonalities and also differences between them. Using the lecture notes and the lecture by Manuel Castells, give an example that you know for (i) a social movement, (ii) a new social movement and (iii) an environmental movement. Explain the three movements using the framework developed by Doyle Timothty.


12 thoughts on “Social Movement + New S.M. + Env. Movement

  1. Social Movement: Brazilian Truckers Strike
    A. Country: Brazil
    B. Movement: The Brazilian president decided to increase the tax on desal fuel by ten percent. This caused the an up roar by the people who were very upset
    C. Campaign: Truck drivers protested, and refused to drive and pay the tax to what they viewed as corrupt politicians. This caused a slew of problems because the majority of things are delivered by trucks in Brazil. One of the major things was gas its self, because the truck drivers were not delivering it no one else in the country were able to get any themselves. They also didn’t deliver feed which caused a lot of problems for farmers in Brazil. After 10 days the president agreed to reduce the fuel back to its previous price for 60 days and things went back to normal. But the protest had a lasting impact because, it took a while for businesses to get back to being profitable and to recover form the money that they lost during that week and a half period.
    New social Movement: Health Care Movement
    A. Country: United States
    B. Movement: There is a lot of frustration with the current health care system that is not equally distributed, making it hard for people of lower income to receive quality health care.
    C. Campaign: People of all different social classes and backgrounds are uniting to protest the current health are system that is available in the United States. It creates disadvantages for citizens in the lower income brackets.
    Ecological Movement: The Zeistgeist Movement
    A. Countary: International Movement
    B. Movement: The zeitgeist is a sustainability movement that advocates for a sustainable lifestyle, and advocates for and educate members of the community.
    C. Campaign: The supporters of the movement hold meetings periodically throughout the year all over the world. At these meetings they share ideas for alternative economic models that are not resource dependent. They also have a variety of campaigns that promote alternative economic models.

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  2. Social Movement
    Location: Greece (Across the county)
    When: May 5, 2011
    Movement: When Greece had a fairly good economy, the government decided to take advantage of it by running a large deficit. Then when the economy slowed down in the late 2000’s their main sources of business-tourism and shipping- was put at risk. As a result, the country’s debt began to build up. Increases in taxes and pay cuts for public spending caused riots across the country.
    Campaign: Activist organized by Direct Democracy Now! organization started protest in the major cities across Greece in May 2011. They first began through peaceful means by simply closing the business of airplanes, trains, or ferries in and out of the country. An estimated 100,000 people marched through the city of Athens and the peaceful movement quickly scaled to violent actions. Some activist tried to storm the parliament building where there were police and activist confrontation. With the use of tear gas, flash bombs, and smoke bombs the police were able to push the activist back. Several banks were also set on fire nearby. Five people died from inhalation of smoke from being trapped within one of the burning buildings.
    After the campaign on May 5, 2011 there was still a lot of debate about the plan to help Greece recover from its budget deficit. Some said it might take Greece at least a decade to rebuild its economy. This campaign was the beginning of a series of socio-political movements that have happen since 2011.

    New Social Movement
    Location: United States (and around the world)
    Movement: “Me Too” Movement is a movement against sexual harassment and sexual assault. It spread virally in the fall of 2017 as a hashtag on social media.
    Campaign: It started out in the United States by Alyssa Milano an actress but quickly spread to countries around the world as people translated it into their own languages. Since the hashtag, there has been many attempts to educate men and women about the issues of sexual assault and harassment. Many men and women have come forward to tell their stories especially in the work environment. The movement was even taken as far as having the ME TOO bill passed in the US Congress in January 18, 2018 to change how sexual assault and harassment complaints were handled.

    Environmental Movement
    Location: International
    Movement: Greenpeace is an organization established in 39 countries around the world who campaign around the world about topics such as climate change, over fishing and anti-nuclear issues. The organization is a NGO who does not accept funding from governments, corporations, or political parties and instead relies on their supporters and foundation grants.
    Campaign: Greenpeace is known for their direct actions and is one of the most visible environmental organizations of the world. The practices of Greenpeace is to bring environmental issues to public knowledge through campaigns, fundraiser/benefit activities in local areas around the world, and marches.

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  3. Social Movements, New Social Movements, and Environmental Movements are all interlinked in some way. In Doyle Timothy’s writing, “Introduction to Environmental Movements,” he begins by writing about many different movements that are happening around the world. These movements are happening all over the world and vary in size type, but the common denominator between them all is the fact that they are all considered Environmental movements. Timothy goes on to say that, “Environmental movements are amongst the most vibrant, diverse, and powerful social movements occuring today, across all corners of the globe (Timothy, 2004).” Social movements are less structured compared to Environmental movements. They are defined as “loosely organized but sustained campaign in support of a social goal, typically either the implementation or the prevention of a change in society’s structure or values (Turner, Et al. 2018).” Lastly, the new social movements are a theory of social movements that attempts to explain the plethora of new movements that have come up in various societies since the mid 1960’s (Turner, Et al. 2018).” They can also be understood as “Palimpsests, often boundless, amorphous, “post-structuralist,” anarchistic, ambiguous, many-faceted, and lacking the defined edges of more institutionalized political bodies (Timothy, 2004).”

    Even though each of these movement types have many similarities, there are movements that fall specifically under each category. Using the framework that Doyle Timothy developed, I will explain the three different movements by using specific examples.

    Environmental Movement:
    -Country: United States of America: Organized by United Nations (UN)
    -Movement: Sustainability Movement
    -Campaign: The Sustainability Movement was created to begin to create a set of sustainable development goals that will help to say energy within building design, as well as making environmental improvements throughout the world (Moncur, 2017). This movement’s goal is to make changes which will help to slow the rate that climate change is affecting us all over the world. This movement has even spread to the less-advanced nations, making sustainable development a focus all throughout the world.

    Social Movement:
    -Country: United States of America
    -Movement: Disability Rights Movement
    -Campaign: “Since the mid 1900s, people with disabilities have pushed for the recognition of disability as an aspect of identity that influences the experiences of an individual, not as the sole-defining feature of a person. (A Brief History of the Disability Rights Movement. 2017).” Over the years Americans with disabilities continued to fight for equality and access in a non-accessible world. “After decades of campaigning and lobbying, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed in 1990, and ensured the equal treatment and equal access of people with disabilities to employment opportunities and to public accommodations (A Brief History of the Disability Rights Movement, 2017).” Although ADA has helped with accessibility, this issue still has an effect to this day, on the physically disabled and if they are able to fully enjoy spaces just like any other able bodied individual.

    New Social Movement:
    -Country: United States of America, Washington D.C.
    -Movement: Friends of the Earth
    -Campaign: Friends of the Earth have a specific campaign initiative. “We work to defend Environmental Protection Agency and strengthen other agencies’ work to protect public health from attacks by corporate polluters. Protect organic agriculture and work to make sustainable and healthy food available to all. Promote clean energy solutions that are community-controlled and help alleviate poverty, Support community efforts to protect our oceans from fossil fuel projects, including export terminals and coal plants (Friends of the Earth. 2018).”

    -“A Brief History of the Disability Rights Movement.” Anti-Defamation League. Accessed October 06, 2018.
    -“About Us.” Friends of the Earth. 2018.
    -Doherty, Brian, and Timothy Doyle. “Beyond Borders: Transnational Politics, Social Movements and Modern Environmentalisms.” Environmental Politics 15, no. 5 (2004).
    -Moncur, Ethan. “Origin of the Sustainability Movement.” Environmental Sustainability. 2017.
    -Thompson, C.H. “New Social Movements.” 2013.

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  4. Social Movement: Black Lives Matter
    Location: Ferguson, MO, United States
    Black Lives Matter is a social movement that formed in response to multiple police brutality cases against the African American community. The movement started as a hashtag on social media and has since evolved into a national organization with dozens of chapters. The movement gained traction in Ferguson, where one Michael Brown was killed by local police. They organized demonstrations in the streets of Ferguson and demanded justice and change to the system that was working against them. Since the formation of this group, there have been many supporters and other organizations that were created in response to it such as the Blue Lives Matter group which was create in support of police. The movements actions in Ferguson have been seen as radical and many leaders have disagreed with their actions.

    New Social Movement: Occupy Movement
    Location: International
    The Occupy Movement was a large scale protest against the current forms of economy around the world and focused on social and economic issues. While none of the groups that were organized had a clear goal, they all wanted to see some form of change in the economic and social systems. Some were focused on protesting against the big corporations and banks that are gaining a lot of money, others wanted to fight corruption, and some others even wanted a change in the entire system. The protesters were active in nonviolent movements but rather used a system called participatory democracy. This movement was widespread but was often disorganized and had no clear goals. The main adhesive between all these movements is the method of protest, which is to occupy important facilities and in large areas to peacefully protest. The movement started as a protest to capitalism and corruption but has now branched to other social issues such as immigration. This shows that the movement is loosely connected throughout the world and has very few long term participants because they are generally disorganized and wide spread.

    Environmental Movement: Anti-Nuclear Movement
    Location: International
    The use of nuclear materials, either for weapon or power use, has been strongly protested for decades. The fear of nuclear accidents, radioactive waste in the environment, and the use of nuclear weapons to limit civil rights has sparked many protests around the world. People in many countries have gathered to protest their countries nuclear programs to stop them from polluting their cities and homes and to reduce the waste from the power plants into the environment. Congregations as large as 600,000 people have gathered against these programs and has since generated a number of “green parties” and organizations that advocate for nuclear disarmament and clean energy.

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  5. 1. Social Movement

    a) Nation: Nepal
    The Nepali Trade Union Movement was a historic workers movement, which started out in 1947 in Biratnagar, Nepal, as a labor strike, and later helped form the base for a nation-wide political movement to overthrow the oppressive Rana Government.

    b) Movement “Issue Banner”: labor rights/political
    The workers of the Biratnagar Jute Mill demanded labor rights, and an increase in labor wages.

    c) Campaign: Biratnagar Jute Mill
    The Biratnagar Jute Mill Strike was the starting campaign for the Nepal Trade Union Movement. At the time, there were no labor rights for low income-class workers, and their living conditions were poor. Under the leadership of several political leaders, the workers organized the strike, where they would only run the mill for 7 minutes a day. This resulted in a 15% increase in labor wages. The Rana Prime Minister also sent out troops to out down the strike. The leaders were captured and citizens started demonstrations demanding their release.

    This movement is a traditional social reform movement, with goals centered on economic well-being and demanding rights for the labor class. This movement was largely group-focused and localized, but later became national.

    2. New Social Movement

    a) Country: China
    The LGBT Movement in China commenced in the 1990s, in the form of small group meetings. It later expanded to hold film festivals, conferences and media awards, although the organizations involved are mostly underground.

    b) Movement “Issue Banner”: Anti-discrimination
    In the 1940s, homosexuality was considered a criminal activity and homosexuals could be arrested and punished under the crime of hooliganism. It was also linked to mental disorder. Today, many underground LGBT organizations fight against discrimination and same sex marriage rights.

    c) Campaign: Beijing: Lesbian Movement “Lala”
    The Lesbian Movement “Lala” is an independent, diversified presence advocating lesbian rights. One of the most important lesbian organizations in mainland China is the Tongyu, which has been actively promoting lesbian rights through public performance arts on gay marriage (2009), holding cultural activities in the name of the Beijing Lala Salon, and publishing a magazine Les+. It also provides funding and training to new organizations, giving them material support.

    This movement transcends economic and political classes, and is related to the rights of LGBT people to maintain their way of life without discrimination. It is “acted out” both on individual level, and on a collective scale (Doyle 2004), hence is a New Social Movement (NSM).

    3. Environmental Movement

    a) Country: Nepal
    The Bagmati Cleanup Campaign was launched in 2013, and is an ongoing effort to clean the river and restore it to a better state.

    b) Movement “Issue Banner”: River; anti-pollution
    The Bagmati river is polluted with household waste and sewer water mixing with the river. Efforts have started out to clean up the garbage on the river banks.

    c) Campaign: Bagmati Cleanup Campaign
    Every week on Saturday, a number of people gather together for several hours and clean up sections of the river. On the 100th week, over 100,000 volunteers from various communities all over the city joined hands and formed a mega-chain on the banks of the river to commemorate their efforts to save the Bagmati River. Over 1600 organizations are involved in the campaign at different fronts, and over 3000 tons of waste has been collected from the riverbanks till date. This movement has also gathered the support of political party representatives, celebrities, and the public alike. In addition to the cleanup efforts, organizations such as the Armed Police Force and the Jorpati Club have built gardens on the riverbanks at certain locations.

    This environmental movement came out of cultural awareness, and exemplifies public participation in environmental betterment.

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  6. Social Movement:
    Fair Immigration Reform Movement (FIRM)

    United States of America
    Since 2000, FIRM has been the meeting place and united voice of the dynamic grassroots movement advocating for comprehensive immigration reform and the civil rights of immigrants in America
    FIRM member organizations are a cross-generational cohort made up of movement veterans and emerging leaders, fighting for and alongside America’s immigrant communities, driving powerful change and working to build an America that values and respects the dignity of every person, regardless of the color of their skin or the place of their birth.
    FIRM is deeply committed to long-term social change. It believes that immigration reform that works for our families and the nation must provide a path to citizenship for all members of our communities, address the root causes of migration, reunite all families and reduce immigration backlogs, provide opportunities for safe future migration and maintaining worker protections , establish border policy that protects border communities, respect the safety and security of all in immigration enforcement, end the mass detention of immigrants, recognize immigrants’ full humanity, and preserve and expand pathways for African immigrants.

    Arias, Sulma and Nazarett, Jasminr. “Fair Immigration Reform Movement.”

    New Social Movement:

    Global Network
    In 2013, three radical Black organizers—Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi—created a Black-centered political will and movement building project called #BlackLivesMatter.
    The mission is to build local power and to intervene in violence inflicted on Black communities by the state and vigilantes. The call for Black lives to matter is a rallying cry for ALL Black lives striving for liberation.
    the Black Lives Matter Global Network is a chapter-based, member-led organization committed to diversity, restorative justice, globalism, queer-affirming, unapologetically black, collective value, empathy, loving engagement, transgender affirming, black villages, black women, black families, intergenerational. And struggling together and to imagining and creating a world free of anti-Blackness, where every Black person has the social, economic, and political power to thrive.

    Garza, Alicia, Cullors, Patrisse and Tometi, Opal. “#BlackLivesMatter.”

    Environmental Movement:

    Worldwide, Headquartered in Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Greenpeace was founded in 1971 by Irving Stowe and Dorothy Stowe, Canadian and US ex-pat environmental activists in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Greenpeace is a global, independent campaigning organization that uses peaceful protest and creative communication to expose global environmental problems and promote solutions that are essential to a green and peaceful future. Consider themselves the “The voice for voiceless mother earth”.
    Ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity and focuses its campaigning on worldwide issues such as climate change, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling, genetic engineering, and anti-nuclear issues.

    Stowe, Irving and Stowe, Dorothy. “Greenpeace.”

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  7. Social movements have been an important part of human history since the earliest formal gatherings of civilization. It’s an important part of protest and expression of opinion that allows for masses to gather and speak louder than they ever could standing alone. A social movement is a loosely organized, but sustained campaign that supports an the implementation or prevention of a change.
    Social Movement: Women’s Suffrage Movement
    Country: United States, but took place in the late 19th and early to mid 20th century across multiple countries.
    Banner: the aim of the movement was to advocate for the right of women to vote in elections.
    Campaign: The movement actually began in 1848 at a women’s right convention in Seneca Falls, New York, and the movement evolved over the next 50 years to involve public education of the “validity of woman suffrage” (NWHM, 2018). Two groups, the National Woman’s Party (under leader Alice Paul and more radical) and the National American Woman Suffrage Association (under leader of Carrie Chapman Catt and more moderate), helped lead to institutional change in the United States. The NAWSA took measures to “enfranchise women in individual states, and simultaneously lobbed President Wilson and Congress to pass a woman suffrage Constitutional Amendment”, with membership counted in the millions. (NWHM, 2018). Due to the work of both of these groups, “The 19th Amendment, enfranchising women, was finally ratified. This victory is considered the most significant achievement of women in the Progressive Era” and is considered the “single largest extension of democratic voting rights in our nation’s history.” (NWHM, 2018)

    The New Social Movement are a more modern evolution of tradition social movements that transcend traditional borders. A new social movement differs from a social movement because of its characteristics, which include having diverse relationships between participants, has a non-typical/marxist uprising, having multiple beliefs and not being based solely around economic/class based issues. Also, a typical new socialist movement is usually decentralized and the relationship between individuals and collective is blurred.
    New Social Movement: Jeffco students and teacher protests.
    Country: United States, in Denver, Colorado in September of 2014.
    Banner: Protest the district School Board to oppose the censorship of history and advocate for better education.
    Campaign. While multiple major factors contributed to the the protests(including teacher pay and standardized testing), the deciding and motivating factor was the school board push to edit the AP US History curriculum to “promote patriotism and discourage civil disorder in the history curriculum” (Nashrulla, 2014). Following a mass teacher sick-out to protest the school board decision, hundreds of students across the district held protests to challenge the school board, organized by social media, media coverage, and the formation of a leading group (started by my friends!) Jeffco Stand Up. By the conclusion of the protests, the students were joined by parents, community members, and teachers across the state that were compelled to also fight to oppose censorship of education.

    Finally, looking at environmental movements, these are extensions of new social movements that share an important interaction with politics, relationships among participants, and desire for resolution of the issue.
    Environmental Movement: Climate March
    Country: United States, April 2017.
    Banner: advocate for the recognition of climate change and an important social justice issue (Fandos, 2017).
    Campaign: The protest was lead by a diverse cast of people, from celebrities like Al Gore, to “ordinary people: the immigrants, indigenous people, laborers, coastal dwellers and children, who organizers say are most vulnerable to the effects of a changing climate” (Fandos, 2018). Like the Jeffco Stand Up protest, these people were more united by cause and purpose than unifying personal characteristics and like Manuel Castells notes, are driven by emotions.
    While the three different evolutions share differences that make them unique, they all fall under the banner of social movements and aim to achieve the same goals by created networks of like minded people to expand influence and advocate for their political change.

    Nicholas Fandos. 2017. “Climate March Draws Thousands of Protesters Alarmed by Trump’s Environmental Agenda.” The New York Times. Accessed October 7, 2018.
    “The Woman Suffrage Movement.” National Women’s History Museum., accessed Oct 7, 2018,
    Nashrulla, Tasneem. “Hundreds of Students in Denver Protest School Board Proposal to “Censor” American History.” BuzzFeed News., last modified September 24, accessed Oct 7, 2018,

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  8. Social Movement: Human Trafficking
    Country: United States
    Movement: End human trafficking
    • Statistics of sex trafficking:
    o Since 2007, the National Human Trafficking Hotline, operated by Polaris, has received reports of 22,191 sex trafficking cases inside the United States. (“Sex Trafficking,” 2015)
    o In 2016, the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children estimated that 1 in 6 endangered runaways reported to them were likely sex trafficking victims. (“Sex Trafficking,” 2015)
    o Globally, the International Labor Organization estimates that there are 4.5 million people trapped in forced sexual exploitation globally. (“Sex Trafficking,” 2015)
    o In a 2014 report, the Urban Institute estimated that the underground sex economy ranged from $39.9 million in Denver, Colorado, to $290 million in Atlanta, Georgia. (“Sex Trafficking,” 2015)
    • In a 2014 report, the Urban Institute estimated that the underground sex economy ranged from $39.9 million in Denver, Colorado, to $290 million in Atlanta, Georgia. (“15 Ways You Can Help Fight Human Trafficking,” n.d.)
    • In a 2014 report, the Urban Institute estimated that the underground sex economy ranged from $39.9 million in Denver, Colorado, to $290 million in Atlanta, Georgia. (“15 Ways You Can Help Fight Human Trafficking,” n.d.)
    • Be a conscientious and informed consumer. Discover your slavery footprint, ask who picked your tomatoes or made your clothes, or check out the Department of Labor’s List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor. Encourage companies to take steps to investigate and prevent human trafficking in their supply chains and publish the information, including supplier or factory lists, for consumer awareness. (“15 Ways You Can Help Fight Human Trafficking,” n.d.)
    • Work with a local religious community or congregation to help stop trafficking by supporting a victim service provider or spreading awareness of human trafficking. (“15 Ways You Can Help Fight Human Trafficking,” n.d.)
    • Students: Take action on your campus. Join or establish a university club to raise awareness about human trafficking and initiate action throughout your local community. Consider doing one of your research papers on a topic concerning human trafficking. Request that human trafficking be included in university curricula. (“15 Ways You Can Help Fight Human Trafficking,” n.d.)
    15 Ways You Can Help Fight Human Trafficking. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2018, from
    Sex Trafficking. (2015, October 13). Retrieved October 7, 2018, from

    New Social Movement: Me Too
    Country: United States then globally
    Movement: Movement against sexual harassment and sexual assault.
    It began in 2006 and was coined by Tarana Burke to help women who survived sexual violence. The movement started off more simply with a hashtag on social media to give a voice to those who felt voiceless and really took off when allegations were made against Harvey Weinstein. The simple phrase of “Me Too” was echoed all over the world and began to show that many of us are not alone and are victims. This lead to the “Times Up” movement, “which is a legal defense fund and anti-sexual harassment initiative backed by prominent women in the entertainment industry” (Tribune, 2018). We are still seeing the positive effects of this movement and it is not slowing down any time soon. The movement is shedding light on the people that are our bosses, friends, family, and our government.
    Hawbaker, C. A. J. and K. (n.d.). #MeToo: A timeline of events. Retrieved October 7, 2018, from
    Tribune, C. (n.d.). #MeToo today: How the movement has evolved since the initial Weinstein allegations. Retrieved October 7, 2018, from

    Environmental Movement: Coastal Resiliency
    Country: United States
    Movement: Protecting coastal cities against storm surges and sea-level rise.
    • Educating the public about sea-level rise
    • Calling for action to the government
    o Some states like North Carolina have laws preventing the coastline from being manipulated to protect the citizens because the state wants to protect the real estate development.
    • Design competitions turning into real life projects
    o Hurricane Sandy Design Competition
    • Developing strategic action plans for the county
    o Example: Galveston Texas

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  9. Social Movement- Feminist Movement
    Groups were developed across the United States to fight for women’s political and equal rights (Lumen, n.d.).
    Beginning in the early 1800’s women were often influential groups and organizations across the country but were not given credit. During that time, Women were not given equal rights or individual identities, they were expected to spend their time at home taking care of the family and partaking in house duties. In the the mid-19th century, conventions were held discussing the topic and women were outraged that laws had been passed that extended to right to vote to African American men, but not women. The National Women’s Suffrage Movement began in 1869 to campaign for women’s rights (A&E Television Networks, 2018).
    After the National Women’s Suffrage Movement was created, they received recognition by proposing that they “were different from men” and their votes would shape a purer democracy. The movement continued to grow stronger until August 26, 1920, when women were granted the right to vote. This movement is the 19th amendment to the Constitution (A&E Television Networks, 2018).

    New Social Movement- Gay Rights Movement
    People are fighting to eliminate discrimination of people who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and queer to provide equal rights (Levy, 2015). They also wanted to eradicate sodomy laws that characterize their acts as immoral (ACLU, 2018).
    In United States the first known organization (Society for Human Rights) began in 1924 and more groups continued to develop across the country after that. The movement was triggered more in 1969 when a 3-day riot broke loose at a gay bar. People became involved to support their rights. For the next 20 years, people gained support by holding marches, people began to reveal their sexual orientation, and discrimination lessened. The National March in 1979 gathered 75,000 to support the LGBT community. In 1980 Democrats supported gay rights at the Democratic National Convention (Infoplease, 2018).
    Since 1980, laws placed to limit discrimination of sexual orientation and allowed partners to receive benefits. In the United States, starting in 2004 (Massachusetts), different states began to accept gay marriage and in 2016 it was legal in every state This movement is continuing to legalize gay marriage internationally (Infoplease (2018).

    Environmental Movement-
    People began to realize their actions were causing a negative impact on the environment and have since been trying to find ways to restore the environment and live more sustainably.
    The environmental movement began in the mid 1900’s. Health issues were occurring, due to pollution and animal species numbers were starting to decline. In 1953 a book titled “The Silent World” was released to help inform the public on the need for a change to our everyday lifestyles. Environmental acts were passed to help enforce necessary changes, such as the Air Pollution Control Act (1955) and the Water Quality Act of 1965). Organizations were also developed to protect endangered species and national parks. Earth Day started in 1969 where approximately 20 million people joined. Efforts were made to preserve resources and reduce the amount of energy consumed in the United States (PBS, 2018). People are continually using knowledge and advancement in technology to establish new solutions.
    Books, organizations, and education has informed people about the importance of protecting the environment. I believe most people understand the necessity but are not all making the changes within their lifestyles to be able to completely make a difference. Experts are working together to find ways to reduce our impact, restore the natural environment, increase efficiency in the built environment, and limit our impact on the environment.

    ACLU. “Why Sodomy Laws Matter.” American Civil Liberties Union. 2018. Accessed October 05, 2018.
    Levy, Michael. “Gay Rights Movement.” Encyclopædia Britannica. July 17, 2015. Accessed October 05, 2018.
    “Social Movements.” Lumen. Accessed October 05, 2018.
    “The American Gay Rights Movement: A Timeline.” Infoplease. Accessed October 05, 2018.
    “The Modern Environmental Movement.” PBS. Accessed October 05, 2018.
    “Women’s Sufferage.” 2018. Accessed October 05, 2018.

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  10. Social Movement: FIRM: Fair Immigration Reform Movement
    Location: United States
    Time: 2000-present

    The Fair Immigration Reform Movement was created to give people coming into the United States more power over their lives. It brings together people of all economic, ethnic and social backgrounds to give them more of a collective voice. The goal is to reform “inhumane and unworkable immigration laws pushed by Congressional leaders.” The movement’s original goals were to establish help for immigrants to gain citizenship, address the mental and physical needs of people who have been displaced from their home countries (often as a last resort), reunite all families, prevent abuse in the workplace, have a border plan that will protect people living nearby, stop detaining immigrants and recognizing humanity. Immigrants simply want the goal of every social movement: respect and recognition of humanity.

    New Social Movement: Black Lives Matter
    Location: United States
    Time: July 13, 2013- Present

    The Black Lives Matter social movement was created to protest the acquittal of George Zimmerman, the killer of black teenager Treyvon Martin. While the movement began in response to the acquittal, it was really the straw that broke the camel’s back. African Americans have been dealing with oppression for longer than most would care to admit. The BLM movement brings attention to the issue and is a call for everyone to examine the way they treat those different from them. The fire was fed with the killing of unarmed teenager Michael Brown by a white officer in Ferguson Missouri. On labor day 2014, BLM leaders and members rallied in Ferguson to show support for the community. The BLM community wanted to intervene when injustice was served. From there, people began starting BLM chapters in their own states. The official Black Lives Matter website says, “our goal is to support the development of new Black leaders, as well as create a network where Black people feel empowered to determine our destinies in our communities.” BLM connects people across the country.

    Environmental Movement: Navdanya
    Location: India
    Time: 1987-present

    Navdanya is a movement that promotes earth democracy and is based on the belief that the earth is one family. The movement creates seed banks (storage unit for seeds to preserve genetic diversity) throughout India and distributes them to farmers in the wake of natural disasters. They are also proponents of ecological education and teaching people how to live in harmony with nature. More than 6,000,000 people are members of Navdanya. They have also organized over 50 courses on biodiversity, food, biopiracy, sustainable agriculture, water, globalization, and business ethics. The movement has spurred more than 2,000,000 famers to switch to organic farming.

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