Climate & Sound Land Use Planning



In half a page, explain what is the most significant factor contributing to climate change and what do scientists say about reversing our impact on climate with regard to this factor? What is your own opinion? according to current practices, can we reduce our impact and reverse climate change?


The video explains sequence of events /phenomena occurred in the ecosystem after introducing the wolves. In half a page, describe the most significant and unexpected change occurred as a result to brining back the wolves.


Bohannon, J. (2010) confirmed the climate threats occurring for the Nile Delta, explain the most significant one and then, using chapter (6) by Gondo, T. (2013), suggest reasonable strategies to mitigate climate issue around the Nile Delta (this part should not be more than 1 page)

10 thoughts on “Climate & Sound Land Use Planning

  1. Research that indicates proof of climate change, for years, has been deemed more of a political opinion and belief, rather than understood as a scientific fact. There are many factors that are contributing to the exponential growth of human influence on nature, but the increasing of livestock farming has contributed immensely to the amounts of methane being released into the atmosphere, land degradation, pollution of water systems, and an impact of biodiversity. Livestock farming also contributes to deforestation. In order to keep up the high demand for meat, all sources have to be doubled. More land for the land grazing extensive livestock, more land for the crops to feed the livestock, and more land to make room for the farms that hold all the intensive systems of livestock. Forests and grasslands are being taken over by the meat industry and being turned into cropland to increase production. The high demand for this industry has to lead to 40% of the land to be used for farmland and continues to grow. According to the FAO, when emissions from land use are factored in, livestock accounts for 9 percent of all carbon dioxide emissions associated with human production and activity, and 37 percent of methane emissions from livestock, and 65 percent of nitrous oxide gases found in manure. In order to get these gases under control and the other effects of livestock farming, we could decrease demand. By consuming less, there would be a significant decrease in demand in livestock farming. If people started eating less meat and consuming it at the increasing rates that it currently is at, the impact would gradually lead to cleaner air. Keep our water systems clean, and decrease deforestation for cropland. Also, there could be more science that takes place in order to increase not only the efficiency of livestock farming but also find ways to improve feeding practices with fewer resources and improve the genetics of the animals in order to control the levels of methane they release and control the manure. Through new technologies and proper management and incentives, the science behind livestock productivity and demand could remain at a sustainable rate and reduce the emissions and effects it has on the environment.
    In 1995, wolves were reintroduced into the Yellowstone ecosystem. Although the wolf is just one animal, it was able to shift the environment in a tremendous way. Species of animals returned to the area and the greenery sprouted into full effect. This was a result of how wolves play a role in the food web of the ecosystem. Once the predator returned to the area, the elk that were grazing on the pastures and greenery and destroying the biodiversity of plants, became controlled in their population. The carrying capacity of the area was being challenged by the elk, and in turn, the ecosystem was suffering. The wolves began to feed on them and caused them to move into different areas in order to survive. This lead to the rejuvenation of the area, and pastures began to regrow and trees were thriving. The most significant result of reintroducing the wolves was the increase of biodiversity in the area. Species were introduced since they were able to feed on the new thriving pastures and there was a balance in the food web. Owls, rabbits, grizzly bears, and other species were found to be reintroduced once the wolves were brought to Yellowstone. The generated effects of the introduction led to the improvement of the area and surviving of cottonwoods and willow marshes.
    The effects of climate change have significantly impacted many environments and ecosystems around the world. In the Nile Delta, climate change has presented an issue that affects the longevity of the area in Northern Egypt. Water has increased in temperature and as a result, when water is warm, it expands. This is one the main contributors to the coastal erosion. The uneven sinking of the land has caused many problems throughout the Nile Delta. While floods had once presented one problem, the Nile Delta not flowing back into the sea presents another problem. When there was an increase of water level that was causing soil erosion, it wasn’t as tremendously devastating because since the Nile Delta was flowing back into the sea, it was also bringing in sediments from the sea. Once the Nile Delta stopped flowing into the sea, new sediments stopped being introduced into the area, and soil erosion continues, but are not being replaced as they had been before. This increases the productivity of the coastal erosion and speeds up the process of the sinking land all throughout the delta. The lack of knowledge on the sedimentary levels of the delta has lead to the questioning of what is underneath and what is happening to the uneven sedimentary levels and how the effects of this will be catastrophic. In order to improve the chances of the survival of this area, innovative urban planning strategy could improve the outcomes regarding this particular issues in the Nile Delta. Understanding and accepting that the sinking of the land is inevitable could aid in the survival of this land. Careful planning and mitigation of the area instead of research and understanding of the area could improve chances towards the devastation. By creating an urban plan that has the factors of soil erosion and sinking land into account, this could embrace preventative measures and focus on creating an area that can withstand such catastrophes and increase the longevity of the area simultaneously. Climate adaptation is key in areas facing severe climate conditions because, although, research and understanding of the area’s relationship with climate change are important, preventative urban planning could also solve many problems at a faster pace than decades of research. The houses and hotels that line the Nile Delta are at risk of crumbling away along with the soil below their infrastructure. Urban planning could save these buildings by taking into account the risks that are presented at the Delta and creating buildings that can withstand these effects. A different base could be applied or a material can be introduced that prevents the erosion of the coast and benefits both the urban area and the environment. A good example of urban planning relative to environmental risk factors would be buildings in San Francisco. They are built on the San Andreas Fault, which could be activated in any second, but they are built to withstand a certain degree of the earthquake. The risk remains, but there are preventative measures that are taken when designing the buildings in order to ensure their safety and longevity.

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  2. Climate Change
    Earth’s climate has changed many times since our planet formed, about 4.5 billion years ago. Digging through evidences, such as fossils, soil, ice, and particles in rocks scientists suggest that during the last 400,000 years, Earth’s average temperatures fluctuated several times, because of events such volcanic eruptions, and meteors that hit our planet. Mainly since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the world climate is changing in relatively high-speed due human activities. The main contributor to the global temperature change (64%) is the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially CO2, through incomplete combustion resulting from the burning of fossil fuels by industries, power stations, and transportation. Deforestation also contributes to the increase in carbon dioxide, because trees absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, as part of their photosynthesis. To reverse or decrease the global greenhouse emissions, scientists suggest that our societies must change its current way of living by eliminating the burning of fossil fuels for energy production and instead use renewable energy sources; transforming the transportation system by investing in green public transportation, switch to walkable communities, and develop new urban communities. They also suggest that people should be more conscientious about their carbon footprints by reducing consumption and eat more local vegetarian diets, giving birth to only one child, and in general being responsible citizens. I think that because climate is already changing, the most sufficient way to make an impact and reduce climate change is to appoint a global committee that will impose regulations and legislations on all nations, corporations, and people. Allowing individual, countries, and communities to create their own plan is already too late, and it might not impact the global environment in the required time to reverse climate change.

    The ecological balance returned to Yellowstone National Park, after wolfs had been reintroduced to their natural habitat. The idea behind trophic cascade, is indirect interactions of reintroducing predators that extinct and were on top of the food-chain back into their natural environment. The idea of reintroducing wolfs back into Yellowstone was brought to congress in 1966 by biologist who were concerned about the large elk population and its ecological impacts. Several years after releasing the wolfs back into the wild, Yellowstone landscape was radically changed. First, the wolf killed elks, and as a result they changed behavior and migrated into different parts of the park. This allow native plants such as aspens, willows, and cottonwood to regrow; bird’s population was increased; and beavers were back in the rivers – building dams, which provided habitats for many other species such as rodents, and birds of prey. Consequently, the wolfs transformed the ecosystem as well as the physical geography of the park – where rivers were stabilized by regenerated forests which alleviated the river banks, and new vegetation that prevented some soil erosion. This inspiring story about Yellowstone’s wolfs, provides hope for future protections and rehabilitation programs of areas that are damaged due to irresponsible human behavior.

    The Nile Delta is in northern Egypt east of Alexandria, and its where the Nile river splits before draining into the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile, the longest river in the world that supports millions of lives is a region where Egypt grows most of its produces. Like many other regions across the globe, climate change already impacts this fertile agricultural land. Damming the river is one of many issues that the Egyptian government is trying to resolve. Even though in the past, controlling the river provided many benefits such as electricity and food control, these days damming the Nile does the opposite. Lack of precipitation continuously decreasing the river flow, and it impacts farmers who depend on its water for growing their crops. In addition, the dams prevent sediments to flow down the river, and it causes land surface to decrease and it also prevents the soil from fertilization. Researchers believe that that fish population along the delta was also crashed due to major reduction in sediments flow to the sea. Another issue that the Nile delta region is experiencing is the expected rise in sea level, due to global warming. Because the agricultural land is very closer to sea-level is at risk of being flooded.

    In Chapter 6 of Waste Management Threats to Human Health and Urban Aquatic Habitats – A Case Study of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Tendayi Gondo suggests several land-use strategies that can reduce some major climate issues around the Nile Delta. Gondo highlights the importance of effective planning that will (1) integrate science and urban planning in order to prepare for future disasters (2) create strong partnership between all “actors” in order to form a long-term planning and decision-making procedures, and (3) collaboration between public to private land management authorities to assure proper land use plan. The importance of these strategies is to form a regional land-use plan instead of local ones to insure the protections of all the sorts of lives and habitats along the river.

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  3. There are three main factors that contribute to the change in the climate that has brought forth a shift in weather patterns, temperature, and various environmental problems. These factors have been devastating to the environment, displacing the fragile ecosystems that have been in place for millennia. With each descending year without a feasible plan that would steer the course towards reparations, the problems that affect the environment will become such an issue that it won’t be avoidable and debatable as it is today.
    One of the major factors that is causing the climate to change so drastically would be the greenhouse gases that is trapping all the heat within the atmosphere. Toxins and other gases are trapping the heat between the clouds and land. These gases have been naturally occurring, but the recent activities of humankind has caused the emissions of these gases to increase by a significant amount. One of the main contributors of these enormous amounts of gas emissions is the practices and lifestyles of humans. Certain actions have caused the side that would lessen and absorb the gases have been reduced do to human practices. These practices include deforestation, burning of materials that would increase the amount of emissions, increasing in land used for farming, and various others. With the forests and woods being cut down, the gases cannot be dispersed into the environment, but instead, trapped within the atmosphere, collecting heat and making the globe warmer. The constant burning of materials like coal, oil, and petrol has risen the emissions of the gases that are now reaching levels of toxicity. Increasing the land for farming practices has lessened the land for the use of forests and wildlife. As stated before, the less trees and forests that there are, the less absorption the plants can do with the gases. Other human practices have caused the increase of gas emissions like the practice of refrigeration and air conditioners. These have caused greater warming consequences than the carbon dioxide emissions of the industrial age. If the practices and lifestyles of humans does not change or alter, the pollution and global warming will continue till there is no turning back and the Earth has now set into a new norm that would make life more unbearable.
    There are various ways to reverse the impact made on the climate that would return the temperature of the globe back to the temperature it was accustomed to. One drastic measure would be to forego the use of fossil fuels. Since the burning of fuels, oils, and coal contributes greatly to the pollution of the atmosphere, foregoing the use of burning fuels, oils and coal would cut the emissions of toxic gases to the atmosphere. Changing to alternative sources of energy would be the next step after getting rid of the dependence on fossil fuels. These alternative energy sources work in sync with the environment, instead of going against it, utilizing the sources that are abundant and limitless like the sun and winds. The excessive deforestation of the woods has been a prevailing problem so the solution would be to slow down the production of wood-based products, until it is replaced with a similar, biodegradable substance that will not impact the Earth with pollution and waste. While it may be an unpopular position to take, having a one-child policy would lessen the pressure on the Earth. Having each family produce only one child would slow the increase of population to the extent that the world can sustain the people’s needs. These policies and changes may come with shock and apprehension, but they will eventually be the norm and the world will be better for it.

    One of the unexpected consequences of the reintroduction of the wolves was the revitalization of the ecosystem. The initial thought was that the predators would take advantage and consume all the prey and the wildlife would deteriorate, but that proved to be wrong. An event known as a trophic cascade had been discovered with the introduction of the wolves. A trophic cascade is a process in which the top of the food chain is the main link toward a healthy ecosystem. When the wolves were being hunted and scarce, the lands were suffering as well. The wildlife started to shrink, the plant life unable to grow properly with the copious amounts of herbivores continuously eating, and the soon the land would become a barren wasteland. The deers and others land built up a grand population, eating away all the plant life and reducing the number of vegetation, causing famines in the deer populace. When the wolves were reintroduced to the land, the balance was restored in the ecosystem. The wolves would cull the herbivores from reaching numbers that would have been unsustainable, balancing the fragile ecosystem that had been upset due to human intervention.

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  4. Climate change is not something new. From the second that humans came to be on this planet, we have been altering the natural environment. Like all other mammals, there are basic needs that humans must fulfill in order to have the ability to survive and thrive. However, these needs for survival are exactly what caused such a problem in the first place. The burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and the significant increase in livestock farming are all human practices that have without a doubt been a major contributing factor to climate change.
    With any problem, there is always a solution. While there is no way to restore the natural environment to what it had originally started out as, scientists believe that there are many ways in which climate change can begin to be reversed. The first being the elimination of fossil fuels that release harmful pollutants into the atmosphere. Another way to help combat climate change would be to stop deforestation. Cutting down trees not only harms the wildlife living in the area, but also large quantities of carbon are released in the atmosphere from the machinery that is used to harvest the timber. As a society we can reduce the impact that we are having on our environmental system. However without extreme change and cooperation of every nation, I do not find it possible that we can reverse the damage that has already occured. For the future the main focus should be on how we can create as little impact to our environment as possible and find alternative resources in order to increase the lifespan of our planet.

    In the year 1995, after years of being missing from the ecosystem in Yellowstone National Park, wolves were reintroduced back into the park. Many changes occurred due to this reintroduction, many other different species began to flourish, like the songbirds that came back in large numbers because of the increased amount of foliage that had been regenerated. The reintroduction of the wolves also led to the arrival of more beavers that helped shape the ecosystem in the park even more with the increased amount of animals that relied on the water as their habitat. The most surprising change that i found was the impact that the wolves had on the rivers in the park. With the wolves back in the park, there was a decrease in the amount of animals that wandered in the valley’s and by the rivers. This change caused a spike in vegetation growth that in turn fortified the soil on the river banks, allowing less erosion to occur. Reintroducing the wolves back into the park solidified the shape of the rivers and set the ecosystem of Yellowstone back onto its natural course.

    The Nile Delta is in grave danger. Throughout the years the Nile has been subject to various seasons of flooding and then droughts, and while this may seems devastative, it was crucial for the natural environment of in Nile Delta in order to regenerate itself. In response to these recurring events the Aswan High Dam was built in 1960, This dam created electricity and helped provide flood control for those individuals that inhabited the Nile. While the dam seemed like it was a great help to the those who lived in the delta, it has caused a lot of issues within the natural environment that are now affecting the millions of people that call the Nile home.
    The biggest problem that needs to be faced is the erosion of the coast and the compacting of the delta’s soil. Before the creation of the dam, the floods that occured in the delta brought various sediments and fresh water that enriched the soil making the land better off for agriculture and also helped keep soil levels from sinking. Now that the delta is being deprived of this sediment and water there are areas in which the soil is compacting and even sinking by approximately one centimeter a year. So as the land sinks and the Mediterranean Sea carves away inland at the Delta it is pertinent that we find a way to stop this from turning into a potential catastrophe.
    Preventing catastrophes like this from happening might not be entirely possible but there can be steps taken in order to try to predict what might occur in the future. By using a binary logistic regression model to predict at what levels the soil may sink or give way due to erosion and with that information at the hands of urban planners, individuals that live in high risk areas can be relocated to different parts or the delta in order to create cities and towns that have a lower chance of being affected by the changes in the Nile. Not everyone is willing to relocate from their homes in the delta so another strategy to take would be to construct buildings that can withstand disastrous situations such as flooding or the sinking of the soil. With infrastructure like this in place, strategic flooding could be used to help return the natural sediment back into the land, in turn giving those who live in the delta solid ground to stand on.

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  5. Climate Change

    Our use of fossil fuel, deforestation and poor agricultural practices is the driving force behind global warming. Using fuel to run factories and the expansion of the cattle industry is increasing the amount of greenhouses gases being trapped in the atmosphere. Trees are a filter for CO2, a greenhouse gas As we lose them we lose our natural filters. Most scientist are convinced that the increase in the Earth’s temperature is directly linked to human behavior. While a lot of damage has been done there are options to slow down this process. One is to stop the use of fossil fuels. This will slow down the greenhouse gas effect. This option is the hardest to adhere to. Many economies around the world are tied to the consumption of fossil fuel. Another option to mitigate the damage is to consume less. Factories that produce goods use fossil fuels to operate. Furthermore consuming less beef can help cut down on the amount of cows which produce methane that is contributing to the greenhouse effect. Moreover, many forest have been cleared cut to make way for agriculture. By consuming less we can slow down these expansions.
    The most unexpected change the wolves brought was the change to the river that flows through the parks. By keeping the deer population at bay the badly damaged vegetation and forest (caused by overfeeding from the deer) got a chance to regenerate. The wolves also kept the deer away from many grassy plains and gorges because they could be easily trapped. The result is now the roots from the renewed vegetation is causing less soil erosion which has creatd a new definition for the river. The river’s width is now a little thinner because the land is not eroding so quickly. While many people knew that the re introducing the wolves back into the habitat had the potential to change the ecosystem it was not expected that the physical geography of the land would be affected as well.

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  6. Frank Delgado
    Professor Amir Gohar
    ENVS 300
    10 March 2017
    Blog Post on Climate Change
    The single main cause of climate change is very simple: mankind. Everyone is to blame and everyone can fix the problem. In the last few hundred years the amount of potent greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has more than doubled. This is a result of a plethora of human activities including the burning of fossil fuels for various industries such as transportation, heat and electricity, agriculture, and the release of potent aerosols into the atmosphere. Unfortunately, we as a species have not been doing enough to combat climate change. There is scientific consensus on how to end human caused climate change and it is quite simple. There is one cause that is far more important than the rest: we must decrease our reliance on fossil fuels. Although there are viable solutions, we have not switched off of fossil fuels to the degree that we really could be right now. In my opinion, everyone could change small aspects of themselves for the greater good. For example, we can try to keep down our power usage by turning the heater down into the 60s. This is a solution that requires little to no effort and can help the environment. Our problem as a species is that we know what is right and we choose not to do it.
    The most significant and unexpected change of the return of the Yellowstone wolves was how they affected the rivers. As the wolves killed and ate the numerous Yellowstone deer, everything in the park began to change. The most notable of these changes however was how the vegetation and trees returned to once barren areas of the park. As this happened, the roots from these plants stabilized the riverbanks of the rivers in the park. This allowed for a better flow and habitat creation for a plethora of new animals.
    As the ravages of climate change become apparent throughout the world, nowhere is safe, This even goes for the biggest river in the world, the Nile. The Nile and its delta are under threat by man-caused forces yet again. Years ago, the Nile was a wild, untamed river that flooded and dried up with relative regularity every single year. Now, it has been years since the last flood, as people have found a way to control the delta via a dam. As is the problem with all dams, sediment buildup has caused problems in the Nile delta. As is apparent with the collapses of some fish species, the damming of the Nile has had severe ecological consequences. Because the Nile has historically flooded, sediment and nutrients have been washed into the river and redistributed into the Nile delta. This is no longer the case. As sediment builds up behind the dam, it hardly makes it to the ocean. As if the Nile doesn’t have enough problems, climate change has caused a sea level rise which threatens the way of life of the people living near the delta. Some scientists estimate a worst case scenario in which the water will rise over six feet in the coming years. If we want this type of situation to be a one off kind of thing, we must change our ways.

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    • I would just like to state for the record that the current time and date are 3/10/18 at 10:07 PM. Not sure what is going on with the time and date at the top.

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  7. The most significant factor contributing to climate change is the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels. Greenhouse gases created by human activities such as industrialization produces carbon dioxide 40% higher. Human practices such as burning coal, oil, etc. also emits carbon dioxide affecting in climate change. Deforestation is another factor of human practices that is negatively affecting in climate change, along with increasing livestock farming, use of fertilizers, and fluorinated gases. Global warming and the earth’s natural climate cycle are other huge factors contributing in climate change. Scientists have found out solutions to reverse our impact on climate with regards to the mentioned factors above. The first being the forego of fossil fuels, by which, it means eliminating the burning of coal, oil and any kind of natural gases. Second, upgrading the infrastructure by using thicker insulation or temperature-regulating steps while building better highways or investing in fuel efficient vehicles and gadgets. Scientists also suggest people to move closer to where they work in order to lessen the use of unnecessary transportation. Personally, my opinion on this would be start living consciously of our consumerism. Only use what we need when it comes to electric energy or any kind of resources that we use daily, and use that are recyclable and environment friendly. If we follow the points from the lecture notes such as eating smart, being effective using products that affect the environment, using electricity only when we need, and maintaining human population in control, I believe, that we can definitely reduce our impact and reverse climate change.
    In the video we saw significant and unexpected change of ecosystem and the geography of Yellowstone as a result to bringing back the wolves into that region. This started with the wolves searching and hunting down deers for food. Deers, sensing danger, radically, changed their behavior of pasture by avoiding the places where wolves were located. Absence of deer affected the growth of plants around that area, increasing the height of the trees by quintuple, bare valley sides turned into forests. This led trees to green plantations to become luscious inviting birds and other animals such as beavers and such to migrate into that area. Dams turned into perfect habitat for otters, fish, and amphibians. Wolves not only hunted deers but coyotes as well, this led increment of other population such as rabbit, mice, hawks, birds, eagles, and bears. Another significant unexpected occurrence was the changed behavior of the rivers around that area. With less barren land and more stronger root of luscious plants around the river banks, erosion were lessened, narrowing the channels, and more pools were reformed that was perfect for the rest of the animal habitat. The bringing back of wolves not only transformed the ecosystem but also, significantly, changed the physical geography of the Yellowstone National Park.
    According to Bohannon, J., climate change and the damming of Nile Delta has arose the threat of coastal erosion and subsidence of delta soil in Egypt. Global warming has resulted in the rise of Mediterranean Sea so rapidly that one-third of the delta is predicted to be lost by 2050. Meanwhile the population around that area is growing each year, a challenge of protecting their people and their land has arose. Many megaprojects have been brought forth to boost the country’s habitable area. A 5 year study of the options for protecting the delta form the raising sea has also been launched by the government of Egypt and the United Nations in order to deal with the issue. After reading Chapter 6 by Gondo, T. (2013), we could suggest some reasonable strategies that were used in the chapter to imply and mitigate this climatic issue around the Nile Delta. First, be prepared to the adaptation of climate change. Lots of the Nile water is collected through rainfalls, if the people are aware of these season they can predict when the dam is going to overflow and make plans accordingly to keep the habitat safe around the area. Second, take advantage of the access water by using it for irrigation, making the population aware of ideas and techniques to make use of the water could also help around the Nile Delta. Lastly, the government of Egypt could use the innovative urban planning approaches to climate change for their next urban development project so that they will be utilizing the power of Delta instead of being overtaken by the issue.

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  8. From lecture notes, there are four factors contributing to climate change and they are the excess of greenhouse gases, human practices, global warming and the Earth natural climate cycle. In my opinion, human practices are the most significant factor because it is also a factor in global warming and the excess of greenhouse gases. For the Earth natural climate cycle, it might really be a reason that the amount of CO2 keeps raising up but there is still no scientific proof that we are really going through a pre-ice age. Therefore, I think the most significant factor would be human practices.
    There are five main human practices that contribute to climate change and they are all about escalating greenhouse effect. They are burning coal, oil and gas which produce carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, cutting down forest which eliminates the carbon dioxide being absorbed and oxygen being produced during photosynthesis, increasing livestock farming which increases methane being produced when livestocks digest food, the usage of fertilizers which emit nitrous oxide, and the usage of fluorinated gases which produces a warming effect.
    There are ten ways suggested in lecture notes to reverse the impact of climate change. However, from my point of view, I do not think they work with current practices.
    The lecture notes suggested forgo fossil fuel, upgrade infrastructure, move closer to work, consume less, be effective, eat smart, stop deforestation, unplug in households and workplace, suggest one child in one family, and carry out green energy.
    For forgoing fossil fuel and carrying out green energy, we can see some European countries like Sweden and Switzerland did a great job in this area but most of the other countries in the world are still depending on fossil fuel. Energy from countries like Qatar and Saudi Arabia are all from the burning of fossil fuel. In this scenario, we cannot expect forgo fossil fuel and carry out green energy to be effective to reverse climate change in the near future.
    For moving closer to work and suggesting one child in one family, I do not think it could be effective. This is because the city will not be capable to allow every one move into CBD area where most people work in. They started moving to suburb area is because the city area is going to be saturated and cannot provide a good living environment to them so it will be hard to convince them moving closer to the city again. For suggesting one child in one family, it will bring out population aging and this is already happening in some developed areas like Hong Kong. Take an example from China, since they apply one-child policy, so many social problems appeared like child being spoiled and population aging.
    For eating smart, it is hard to carry out as the organic food may have used a lot of energy for transportation and the nonorganic ones used fertilizers. It is also hard to build a large organic farm in the city as there is no space. For upgrading infrastructure, it is impossible to demolish all the building and rebuild all the road, we can just apply it to the new ones. These two solutions seem like cannot be effective to reverse climate change because of the fixed land uses.
    For consuming less and stop deforestation, it will help but if the population keep increasing, the consumption rate will still be high and deforestation may somehow be needed to provide raw material for us.
    However, every little step helps. If all people start unplugging when they are not using the devices, energy consumption will drop significantly. Even though I think the solutions are not effective in the near future, I think we still need to implement them before our planet pass the environmental tipping point. Climate change may not be reversed in the near future but in the future, it may be reversed if we all start working hard on it.
    In the video, it explained that the Yellowstone National Park has brought back wolves to balance the ecosystem.
    It said that after bringing back the wolves, the population of deers went down as wolves are their predators. Then, the deers started avoiding to go to the places that will easily be trapped and hunted. After that, the flora and fauna in those area are starting to grow again. The Height of trees quintupled in six years and bare valleys became a forest which led birds and beavers moved back to that area. After the flora regenerate, it decreased soil erosion which helped the river to meander less, forming pools and riffle sections. That is the most unexpected change in my opinion.
    Besides killing deers, wolves also kill the coyotes which increases the population of rabbits and mice, then hawks, weasels, badgers, ravens, eagles and bears.
    The wolves act like an ecosystem engineer as they made the ecosystem regenerate again. For me, the most surprising part for me is that the deers damage the ecosystem that much. When I was watching the video, I felt so shocked that why they put wolves back there just to kill deers. After that, I realized that the deers damage the trees, the vegetation, decrease the birds and beavers and lead to soil erosion. It helps me to think about the food chain, if the population of one level of species get enlarged, the whole food chain will be messed up. One level of species exists to control another level of species to avoid the ecosystem to be imbalanced. In that scenario, wolves help to control the population of deers and coyotes to balance back the ecosystem.

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  9. Climate Change Summary
    The most significant factors that contribute to climate change are the chemicals that are released into the atmosphere by humans directly and by humans indirectly from livestock. Climate change is an umbrella term that tries to identify why certain natural phenomena have been occurring, that leads to a change in the climate.

    Chemicals that are addressed when talking about climate change are carbon dioxide and methane. These are two biggest contributors when it comes to the changing climate. They are known as heat trapping gasses, the trapping of the heat leads to increased weather patterns, and abnormal weather patterns. It affects weather because with heat there is more energy presented in the atmosphere, which leads to crazier weather patterns.

    The carbon dioxide is made through the combustion process from cars, the more people drive, the more CO2 goes into the air. This then gets up to the atmosphere and traps the heat from the sun, methane does a similar thing where it also has the ability to trap heat in the atmosphere, and it comes from livestock farts. To mitigate the two gases there would need to be less driving happing to reduce the carbon dioxide in the air, or there would need to be something that replaces the current engine with something that doesn’t produce carbon dioxide as a byproduct. For the methane, a way of soling that issue would be growing less livestock, which than would decrease the demand and decrease the need of so much animals, therefor decreasing the methane in the air.

    Tropic Cascade in Yellowstone
    The trophic cascade that happened in Yellowstone starts at the top of the food chain with wolves and goes down the web. In Yellowstone wolves where reintroduced to the area and this lead to a lot of things being changes. Before the wolves arrived in 1995 there was a large number of dear, they grazed away a lot of the vegetation that left Yellowstone looking empty when dealing with vegetation. The wolves arrived and brought on interesting affects, first they killed the dear off, this lead to the dear adapting and not going places where they can easily be seen like the valleys. These areas that no longer had the dear feeding on them had mass growth happen. The increase in vegetation brought in birds. The increase of trees brought more beavers to this area, and the beaver damns brought more animals, since they provided shelter for the animals. The wolves killed the coyotes, which made rabbits rise, and with rabbits came the animals that prey on rabbits. The wolves eventually changed the rivers, because the wolves caused less grazing in valleys, which lead to more vegetation that helped rivers stay their course and not meander as much. This all happened because of wolves. And this is an example of trophic cascades where the top of the food chain affects the things on the bottom.

    This Issue on the Nile
    The Nile river is one of the longest rivers in the world, and there are a lot of people relying on it for survival. The Nile is very important to the people living around the area, because it is one of the only sources of water, and it’s a large source. The issue with climate change and the Nile is the increase in temperature is affecting sea rise. The temperature is making the ice caps that are located in the North melt, this gradually increases the ocean levels, but the raising temperature also causes ice to break apart, and large chunks to fall into the ocean, this increases sea rise quicker. The Nile River is affected by this type of sea rise, its causing the banks to break apart, and the rising water will affect the inhabitants that live around the banks as well. With the increase of the temperature these sorts of things happen.

    The best way to manage sea rise is to stop the heating process, this needs to be done at a global level. Egypt cannot change the way the whole world behaves so they have to be reactive to the situation. Making the temperature not increase will make the ice caps stay together, but since they cant do much about that Egypt would have to work with the people living around the Nile to come up with a logical way of getting through the situation. The best way to address the problem is to build dams along the Nile that will make sure that the proper water amount is coming through, to prevent over flooding. Another thing that can be done is to implement walls around the river to make sure that the flow of the river is controlled. These are the things that can help with flow control if the global warming keeps happening.


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