Environmental Movements Framework

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Timothy Doyle suggested a framework to unpack and understand different environmental movements. Select one environmental movement from any country in the world and explain its history, how did it start, the key players, what is it’s main cause and its impacts on making the needed change. Make sure you use the framework stating clear the nation, issue banner, and campaign.

Note: Do not select any of the 6 examples Timothy Doyle used in his book.

  

26 thoughts on “Environmental Movements Framework

  1. Since my country of origin is Italy, I decided to research on environmental movements in Italy. However, the result of my research brought to the conclusion that Italian politics and advocacy for the environment is lower than the protection for culture and history. In 1912, the Italian historian and philosopher Benedetto Croce expressed himself in favour of the protection of the environment. He once stated that it is not only about nature but also about history. Therefore, like any monument or cultural asset of historical or artistic interest, it must be protected. Italy also holds the primacy of being the first state in the world, which has included the protection of the environment in its Constitution. Article 9 of the Italian Constitution, paragraph 2 states: “the Republic protects the environment and the artistic heritage of the nation”. Many environmental movements in Italy start directly from the policies of the government. One of the oldest national associations, founded in 1955, is “Italia Nostra” (Our Italy): a national association for the protection of the historical, artistic, and natural heritage of the nation.

    Italia Nostra’s conception was made possible thanks to the common ground of interests of Roman artists, art critics, historians, and urban planners. They united themselves in defence of Italian artistic and natural heritage. For six decades, the activities organized by Italia Nostra have helped to spread the “culture of conservation” of the urban and rural landscape and of the environmental character of the cities. From the first Roman nucleus, this movement has grown to more than 200 sections scattered throughout the national territory. The mission statement of Italia Nostra is to protect its cultural and environmental heritage. In 1991, this movement was one of the only associations that wanted the approval in Parliament of the legal framework 394 that governs the establishment of national and regional protected areas. Thanks to this law, in about 20 years, 24 national parks have been established in Italy.

    Under this campaign and legal framework, the territories that constitute natural heritage, especially if vulnerable, are subject to a special protection and management regime: the conservation of animal and plant species, natural processes, geological and paleontological formations, and ecological balances. This campaign, brought up by the Italia Nostra Movement, it basically identifies natural parks as part of the country heritage and therefore as in need of protection. It is of significant importance to notice how a social and environmental movement such as Italia Nostra, in Italy, can reach to the government and help to create a new legal framework for the protection of natural parks. The factors of the current underlying deterioration on natural habitats are to be found in the irrationality of the human behaviour. Therefore, the starting point for improving this environmental situation is to change the behaviour of individuals, through awareness campaigns that can bring a change to a government policy level.

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    • THE HISTORY OF LOVE CANAL

      Love Canal is located in the city of New York, Niagara Falls. In 1892 there was a project proposal to connect the upper and the lower Niagara River with the help of A canal The Town of love hope to harness the water of the upper river into a navigable channel that would eventually provide cheap power to the community. However the county fell Into economic depression and the financial backing needed for the project was abandoned. In consequence there was left behind a partially dug section of the canal. This land was sold at a public auction and in 1920 became a municipal and chemical disposal site. The principal company that dumped waste was Hooker Chemical Company. In 1953 The company sold the now covered canal to the board of education for one dollar. Hooker company gave the deed of transfer to the education board with a a warning of the chemical wastes buried inside and include a disclaimer absolving the company of any liability regarding the sale. With this the education board started construction of an elementary school. An average of 400 students were registered in the school and soon construction of homes near the canal were completed however the new homeowners did not know of the dangerous site nearby and were never told of this issue. A young mother had a very sick son due to the heavy chemicals in the area her name was Louis Gibbs. She started the antitoxic environmental group that led to change in the area and that many other small towns with same issues have followed after. Louis Gibbs worked hard and united all of her neighbors against the state. She talked to many parents and she found out that all the children had similar symptoms.The state after so much pressure conducted tests that found over 20,000 chemicals pollutants in the air, water and soil. The state also found a high number of fertile women with reproductive issues. This action fueled the movement to push for legislation to help close the area. The movement fought for the school to be closed and The State agreed to evacuate all the pregnant women and young children. Eventually the state bought all of the 239 houses and the area was closed for good. Movements like this are small but can showcase the power of change that can happen when people unite to fight for s common cause.

      NATION: USA
      ISSUE BANNER: ANTITOXIC
      CAMPAIGN: love canal movement/ homeowners association

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  2. One prominent environmental movement was the Chipko Andalan forest conservation movement in Uttar Pradesh, India that began in 1973 and ended in 1980. It began when the villagers, especially women, joined protest groups in retaliation against the government policy that prevented the villagers from managing their own land and denying them access to the lumber that was cut down from the trees. The commercial logging endeavours by foreign companies caused soil erosion, depleted water resources, increased flooding, and lower agricultural yields to the inhabitants. Gandhian social activist and environmentalist Chandi Prasad Bhatt founded an organization called Dasholi Gram Swarajya Mandal(DGSM) to foster small-scale industries for rural villagers, in opposition to the large-scale clear-cutting by the foreign companies. The first protect was in April 1973 when Chandi led the villagers to embrace the trees to keep them from being logged. After many days, the DGSM was granted that lot and the foreign company was denied to log there.
    The main actors were peasants and women villagers who used Gandhi’s tactics of nonviolence called satyagraha (nonviolent resistance) through tree-hugging. Through the 1970’s more than one-hundred and fifty villages were involved with the Chipko movement with twelve major protests. Its major success was when the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, in 1980, put a fifteen-year ban on commercial felling. As the movement endured, the protests transformed into a wide scale “Save Himalayas” movement. The success of the Chipko movement saved thousands of trees from being logged and truly became a renowned environmental movement.

    ‘Embrace the trees and
    Save them from being felled;
    The property of our hills,
    Save them from being looted.’

    Ghanasyam Raturi, a Chipko poet
    Nation: India
    Issue Banner: Anti-logging/anti-deforestation & forest conservation
    Campaign: Chipko Movement

    Works Cited

    “The Chipko Movement” (2018). The Chipko movement. [online] Available at: http://edugreen.teri.res.in/explore/forestry/chipko.htm [Accessed 7 Feb. 2018].
    Encyclopedia Britannica. (2018). Chipko movement | Indian environmental movement. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Chipko-movement [Accessed 7 Feb. 2018].

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  3. Wangari Maathai founded the Greenbelt Movement in 1977 in Nairobi, Kenya. The movement was set forth to empower indigenous women in the Kenyan countryside who were being majorly affected by the mass deforestation of the forest. Maathai met with these women and taught them how to plant trees to replace the ones that were taken. She also emphasized the importance of the trees for helping combat soil degradation, fuel for cooking and to help these women generate their own income. The movement blew up and before Maathai’s death; over 51 million trees had been planted. But this environmental movement was also social in its standing. The Greenbelt platform looked to mobilize these disenfranchised communities, stands for justice, equity, self-determination, alleviate poverty and end environmental destruction. This movement was able to bring together men and women all over Kenya, and eventually all over the world, to fight for their rights.
    Under the framework laid out by Timothy Doyle in his work on environmental movements, the Greenbelt movement fits into his theory perfectly. The nation would be Kenya. The movement issue banner would be deforestation and soil erosion. Finally, the campaign would be the Greenbelt Movement. Due to this movement, Doyle would argue, that it is the reason why there is a “green” industry in Kenya. Maathai taught these women how to utilize these trees and plants and nature to make work for themselves, such as with beekeeping. Doyle argues that environmental movements can be classified under new social movements. The Greenbelt Movement would fit right into this area also. For the definition of new social movements that we discussed in class, the Greenbelt Movement would follow the guidelines. It holds no clear relation between the people involved besides that they live in Kenya. People from all different walks of life were involved in the movement as can be seen with their many protests in Nairobi. The movement did not have economic or racial ties. People from many different beliefs and situations came together to make this movement work. The movement was not in one place and has since moved all over the world. The movement was centered in the areas of ecology, health and human rights, as was discussed in class. The Greenbelt movement was equal parts social and environmental and understood the fact that one cannot exist without the other.
    In the end, the Greenbelt movement successfully made social and environmental changes not only in Kenya, but in neighboring states also. They were able to successfully fight deforestation, change building policies with protests and Maathai eventually went on to win the Nobel Peace Prize for her work with the movement. The movement was seen as a precursor for environmental conservation and women’s rights in the region. Maathai went on to serve on the parliament of Kenya and contribute to environmental policy for the state.

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  4. NATION: USA
    ISSUE BANNER: Climate Justice / Not In Our Backyard: Fighting Pollution in Richmond, California
    CAMPAIGN: Richmond Confidential

    Residents in Richmond have health problems due to pollution created by the chemical’s produced in the corporate factories found in the city. Richmond is also know for its movements in environmental justice which tries to help and prevent the amount of pollution released into the community. Some of these chemicals are DDT, arsenic etc. Richmond is considered one of the most toxic sites in the country, as well as one of the lowest income communities in the Bay Area. This reporter Sara Bernard found that in recent years, the toxic levels of chemicals in Richmond have been studied to first address the air quality in Richmond and then how this has created a growing environmental justice movement in Richmond to help address why big corporation’s are taking advantage of policy to continue to pollute an areas that have little political ties, socioeconomic recourses and the money to help change this problem faster. Grassroots community action movements have been fighting to develop program and social movements, These community activists have been noted in the Richmond Confidential, a project of the Graduate School of Journalism at UC Berkeley, and reporter Sara Bernard who helped orate the community environmental activism taking place in Richmond.

    Website: https://www.radioproject.org/2013/02/not-in-our-backyard-fighting-pollution-in-richmond-california/

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  5. Issue Banner: Protect Our Native Land and Water
    Country: Honduras
    Campaign: Indigenous Rights

    This movement was started by the Civic Council of Popular and Indigenous Movements of Honduras (COPINH) in early 2010 and continues now. COPINH was founded by environmental activist Berta Caceres who played a huge roll in many movements in Honduras, including this one. Not only did COPINH seek to raise awareness for the environment, but it also sought to bring more power to the people. During 2012 and 2013, the indigenous Honduran people led by Berta Caceres were able to stop the dam from being built, by moving boulders and setting up camp in the path of the road. The people made it their lives to prevent the dam from being built, spending day in and day out at their campsites. Also during this time, Caceres’ group COPINH, “led a national and international advocacy campaign to highlight the environmental and cultural destruction the dam would cause,” while the Honduran government, “responded with a campaign of violence and intimidation (The Intercept, 2016).” The movement started because the Agua Zarca dam that was supposed to be built, would be put on a river that was the main water source for indigenous peoples. This water was also sacred to the people, who had many traditions and family stories associated with the waters.

    The project to build the Agua Zarca dam was proposed by DESA, the private energy company which has ties to the 2009 coup against the Honduran government. A huge player in DESA is Camilo Atala, who is president of the largest bank in Honduras. The building of the dam was originally backed by World Bank, and the Sinohydro Group.

    Currently, all plans to go forward with the Agua Zarca dam have been stopped, however, this has not been a peaceful prevention. On March 3rd 2016, Berta Caceres was murdered in her home for being an environmental activist. She was the second person from her town to be murdered for speaking up and leading many people resist more environmental degradation to their native land. Following her death, COPINH was able to secure the titles to their land and stop more more building of dams on sacred land.

    Citation: Pisa, Katie. “Drugs, Dams, and Power: The Murder of Honduran Activist Berta Cáceres.” The Intercept, 11 Mar. 2016, theintercept.com/2016/03/11/drugs-dams-and-power-the-murder-of-honduran-activist-berta-caceres/.

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  6. Issue: Environmental issues in Tropical Islands and Arctic communities and protection of Indigenous peoples traditions and values.
    Country: Norway
    Campaign: Many Strong Voices

    “Many Strong Voices” is an organization that is Norwegian led which efficiently connects regions from the Arctic that is facing climate change issues head-on. These arctic communities are areas that have dealt with climate change issues for many centuries and have felt the effects of warmer weathers and are seeing the ice melt at extremely fast rates. MSV was launched in December 2005 by another organization called GRID-Adrenal, which is a Norwegian organization that also works with the United Nations Environmental Program, along with the Small Island Developing States (SIDS), all these collective forces work together in hopes to share knowledge across the world about climate change. All those that are involved with these organizations and MSV all contribute with backgrounds in “international organizations, government agencies, non-government organizations, Indigenous Peoples’ Organizations, research institutes, communities and individuals in communities” which collectively really helps create a stronger force in creating an organization that is aware and considerate of all types of people. Especially people who are living in regions that are extremely dependent on natural resources for a way of living, along with those who are living lives that are more progressive and supported by technology. This collective group of organizations coming together allows there to be support for communities regardless of their lifestyle.

    A few ways that MSV works to create awareness and help communities are through specific activities. A few that I found significant were;
    “Involving and inspiring youth to take leadership and to catalyze action in their own communities for their own generation through Portraits of Resilience, directed by Canadian photographer Christine Germano. Portraits of Resilience has been exhibited at the Smithsonian Institution and other major museums, as well as at the international climate change negotiations in Denmark, South Africa, and Poland.”
    and “Ensuring that local and Indigenous Peoples’ traditional knowledge and experience from affected SIDS and Arctic communities is accepted by national and international scientific and policy bodies, with a focus on the IPCC and UNFCCC.”. (Kelman, Crump)
    Reason being that these are influential is that it is photography can always be powerful in explaining and showcasing issues especially for those that are affected by climate change. Powerful photography can change a mindset across the world and push people to care about issues. Along with that, creating security for Indigenous Peoples and creating this need to express why their traditions must be respected is important because we should not force any group to let go of their values in a more progressive world.

    One theme that MSV also focuses on not only focusing on climate change but other issues such as, “include rapid rural-to-urban migration, the potential loss of languages and cultures through emigration, population growth, gender and minority inequities, erosion of local knowledge and experiences, manipulation by richer governments and corporations, and unsustainable natural resource extraction, especially through exploration and exploitation conducted without the local communities’ cooperation” (Kelman, Crump). MSV, SIDS, and Arctic, with their powerful collective forces their ability to work towards many other important issues which is what makes these organizations unique and powerful. MSV provides the inspiration and desire to preserve communities that are vulnerable to climate change while also considering these communities histories and social challenges that they may face.

    Citation: “Many Strong Voices for the Arctic & Tropics.” The Norwegian American, 26 July 2016, http://www.norwegianamerican.com/research/many-strong-voices-for-the-arctic-tropics/.

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  7. In the article “Conclusions to Environmental movements,” Mario Dian sees the identity-building functions of social movements. Environmental movements are defined as one of the types of social movements. The issues people pick for an issue banner are centered on ecology, health, and human rights. These environmental movements are the most vibrant, diverse, and powerful social movements occurring today, across all corners of the globe. And are believed to must be persistent in this salutation of diversity and resist the all powerful but understandable urges to overly homogenize opposition, using the justification of global resistance and, in doing so, creating one environmental movement.

    The structure of creating environmental movement has been changing to make full use of the Internet. “Arab Spring” is one of the examples for using Internet to assemble advocates. “Arab Spring” was a revolutionary wave of both pro-democracy protests and uprisings, either violent or non-violent, took place in the Middle East and North Africa beginning on 17 December 2010 in Tunisia. The movement in Tunisia is referred as “Jasmine Revolution,” which were protested against corruption, poverty, and political repression, and forced Pres. These were the major issues occurs in many countries in Middle East and North Africa. Looking closely to Jasmine Revolution, the unrest began after Mohammed Bouazizi, an unemployed 26 year old, protested government corruption by setting fire to himself outside municipal office at the town in central Tunisia. The news widespread through the country via broadcast and symbolizes the injustice and economic hardship afflicting many Tunisians, whom also suffer from hunger and political repression, under the Ben Ali regime. In consequence, Zine-Abidine Ben Ali stepped down and flees the country in January 2011. Tunisians could participate in a free election to choose members of a council tasked with drafting a new constitution. The success of the revolution spread through, encouraged other countries such as Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Libya, and Syria, where wither the regime was toppled of major uprisings and social violence occurred.

    From the brief history of the movement “Arab Spring,” it is clear that people who were anxious about their human rights were the key players. The main causes were poverty, political repression, and the controlled social media. These were replaced as a movement issue banner. Demonstrator and protester’s goal was to topple the regime, which people were discontented. To assemble as a one big group, people raise the slogan, “the people want to bring down the regime.” This slogan strikes to many people’s hidden mind, especially young generations. The interesting thing was young people were on the lead. They were capable of using technology, like Internet. This signifies local movement can gain power by encouraging in the movements through Internet based social media. For instance, the movements in Tunisia gradually attracted international criticism.

    References
    Wikipedia. Arab Spring. [Website]. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring
    The Nations. (2011). Arab Spring. [Website]. Retrieved from https://www.thenation.com/article/arab-spring/
    Encyclopedia Britannica. Arab Spring. [Website]. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/event/Arab-Spring

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  8. Earth Day
    Nation: USA
    Issue Banner: Environmental health
    Campaign: Nelson’s teach-ins

    On September 20, 1969, a Democratic senator from Wisconsin, Gaylord Nelson, gave a lightly publicized speech in Seattle saying, “I am convinced that the same concern the youth of this nation took in changing this nation’s priorities on the war in Vietnam and on civil rights can be shown for the problem of the environment (Lemann,2017). Nelson was inspired on educating the public about environmental issues after he saw the damage done by a massive oil spill in Santa Barbara, California in 1969. He had a sudden realization that all the groups that had been protesting, pollution from power plants, pesticides, oil spills, toxic dumps, the loss of wilderness and extinction of wildlife all shared common values (Bradford, 2017).

    It’s important to know that during these times, mainstream America was unaware of environmental concerns. Must Americans drove big sedans, which required large amounts of leaded gas, industries pumped out smoke and sludge with little legal consequences, and the word “Environment” was more likely to be found in a spelling bee than the evening news (EarthDay 2018). One of the few times alarms for the environment had been brought up on a large scale was with Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring, which started a spark for change. Making the New York Times bestsellers list in 1962, the book was a defining moment on the early stages of public awareness and concern for the environment and links between public health and pollution (EarthDay, 2018).

    Nelson’s idea was to take these concerns and groups, organize them, and bring them to the nation’s attention through national “teach-ins”. Thousand of speakers would organize events across the country, many at high schools and colleges, giving voice to an emerging consciousness and channel the energy of anti-war movements with concerns for the environment and bring it to the front page (Lemann, 2017). On April 22, 1970, only seven months after his speech in Seattle, 20 million Americans took to the streets in a massive coast-to-coast rally dubbed Earth Day to demonstrate their support for a healthier environment (EarthDay, 2018). Earth Day had achieved a rare political agreement across Republicans and Democrats, the rich and poor, and even farmers and city slickers. By the end of that year the momentum had led to the creation of the EPA, which would soon lead to the passage of Clean Air, Clean Water, and the Endangered Species Acts.

    The success of Earth Day was partly a matter of timing, with years of slowly building environmental awareness, along with the energy of the sixties ready for change with the Vietnam War and civil-rights (Lemann, 2017). Starting as an educational based program that was widely distributed, controlled and shared at local levels, it reached mothers, college students, hunters, and fishermen who simply wanted to protect their children, clean air and water, and a safe habitat for food.

    References:
    -Bradford, A. (2017, April 18). Earth Day: Facts & History. Retrieved February 10, 2018, from https://www.livescience.com/50556-earth-day-facts-history.html
    -Lemann, N. (2017, June 19). When the Earth Moved. Retrieved February 10, 2018, from https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2013/04/15/when-the-earth-moved
    -History of Earth Day. (n.d.). Retrieved February 10, 2018, from https://www.earthday.org/about/the-history-of-earth-day/

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    • Nation: Japan
      Movement Name: Hidyanko
      Issue Banner: Anti-Nuclear Power
      Movement Statement: Halting construction of new nuclear plants and the gradual phasing out of Japan’s 54 current reactors as energy alternatives are found.

      One of the most interesting and far-reaching environmental movements came about after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power facility meltdown in the Fukushima prefecture in Japan.The nuclear accident was the result of a tsunami breaching the oceanside walls of the facility at the same time as a power outage occurred in the facility; which could have been handled by the backup generators but the placement of the generators being below sea-level allowed the natural disaster to cause a meltdown in one of the reactors in the facility.
      A group that has long been around in Japan, since the dropping of the nuclear attacks on Nagasaki and Hiroshima perpetrated by the United States, known as the Hidyanko, are a group of 10,000 or so survivors of the nuclear attack and have been huge proponents of the anti-nuclear movement that gained much larger traction in Japan after the Fukushima meltdown.

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  9. Throughout, recent history of the world, there has been countless atrocities that go on facing our environment. There are many companies that sacrifice the limited resources provided for the world by either exploiting it or wasting it. Many organizations have come out in the recent century to promote change and protect such delicate resources in the world that are left. Arguably, water and air are some of the larger concerns for the environment. Water and oxygen provide for all life that exists and breathes. There is not much tell on why there isn’t a larger effort to protect the water resources that we have currently. Not to say there have not been many efforts but for the world there needs to be a much larger push.

    The water keeper alliance is a fast-growing nonprofit from the United States that works to hold polluters accountable for their waste. WaterKeeper has been around since the 1960’s, started by working class fisherman that understood the value of protecting water resources. They quickly expanded around the world and are making international strides to protect the innocence of the environment. It is critical to have a team that is fighting to make the world a better place to guarantee safe drinking water for people all over internationally. This group has taken a large step to provide the activism needed to ensure changes are made. Not only are they pushing for better water solutions but also are advocating for clean energy, clean air, and waste as well. This organization has made efforts to push its influence internationally. They have coverage from the United States all the way to the Himalayas, full of people that are proud of the work they do and make the most of the world they live in.

    One of their many campaigns, Clean and Safe Energy has been one the biggest pushes. There are many people that do not realize, but there are many pollutants in the air that are transported into local waterways. Through their campaign, they do an immense amount of research, providing support for their activism. They start with many different volunteer ventures to get people excited about the protection and conservation, building support for their cause. Strategically, they have an entire staff delegated to each campaign that that work to create a strong backbone for the organization to stay strong and connected through political and environmental goals.

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  10. Nation: Thailand
    Issue Banner: Protection of villagers, fisherman and farmers in the Mun River by opening the Pak Mun Dam.
    Campaign: The Assembly of the Poor

    The Assembly of the Poor comes out of a series of protest by Thai villagers, farmers and fisherman against the construction of the hydroelectric Pak Mun dam that started in 1991. The dam was constructed by the Electricity Generation Authority of Thailand with the support of the World Bank to provide electricity. However, the dam ended up costing twice as much as predicted, and most importantly created displacement and damages on the ecosystem, the most important one being decreasing the fertility of the river and therefore reducing villager’s ability to make a living off of fishing. In terms of displacement, the Environmental Planning Survey predicted that 241 households would be displaced but the actual number is 1,700.
    Protest erupted during the construction of the dam as villagers quickly realized the damages that will results from the construction. In 1993, some of the first protest took place around the dam but was quickly shut down by the police. The government dismissed the concerns of the villagers as it argued that they were unfounded but accepted to develop a plan to compensate the households as a temporary solution. Villagers decided to protest in the capital Bangkok, in order to show their discontent and also raise awareness to the issue. After the completion of the dam in 1995, the Khon Kaen university confirmed the damages in the ecosystem advanced by the villagers.
    In 1995, the Assembly of the poor was created and played an important role. They started by building other villages near the dam and making the access difficult to construction workers in addition to decentralized protests throughout the country. One of the most impactful protest was the creation of a mock village in front of the government house in Bangkok to raise more awareness in and around the country.
    As a result to the protest by the Assembly of the poor, the government decided in 2001 to open the dam for four months every year in order to rebuild the better ecosystem and allow the villagers to fish again. AS much as it sounds insufficient, there is a need to acknowledge the policies that resulted from the activism of the Assembly of the Poor. It did make an impact as not only they were able to open up the dam, but it also shows the importance of villagers, fisherman and farmers, through their activities, in maintaining a good ecosystem.
    Source cited: Thai Villagers Protest the Pak Mun Dam, 1991-2001. Last accessed on February 10, 2018 at URL https://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/thai-villagers-protest-pak-mun-dam-1991-2001
    The World Commission on Dams, Case study: Pak Mun Dam and Mekong/Mun Rivers Bassin. Last accessed on February 10, 2018 at URL http://geocompendium.grid.unep.ch/reference_scheme/final_version/GEO/Geo-2-054.htm

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  11. For the past several years, the city of Oakland California along with other Bay Area cities have been struggling with the illegal dumping of garbage, junk, and construction materials on public lands. As a result, movements consisting of community organizations, churches, schools, and local governments have been working together to stop and clean up illegal dumping. I believe local anti dumping campaigns such as these can be considered part of the larger Anti Littering movement that began in the United States during the 1950s. The Anti Littering movement has had successes over the years with achieving reductions in waste and littering. However, I believe the movements successes have partly contributed to the current problem of illegal dumping taking place in Bay Area cities.

    The anti littering movement was born in the years following World War 2 in response to increased littering along the nation’s highways. The movement is probably most well known due to the efforts of the non profit organization Keep America Beautiful which was founded in 1953. The Keep America Beautiful organization was comprised of businesses, government organizations, and individuals with the goal of reducing litter, reducing waste, and increasing recycling efforts. The organization pushed their agenda through educating the public with literature and public service announcements. The movement and organizations such as Keep America Beautiful saw an expansion as other environmental movements such as Earth Day also rose in prominence during the 1970s. The Keep America Beautiful organization is still active in the U.S. today and similar groups have sprung up internationally.

    I believe the anti littering movement has been successful at their goal of reducing waste and litter. While litter has by no means been eliminated, I do think attitudes around littering have greatly shifted in the United States during the last 50 years. Perhaps the most important contribution of the anti litter movement has been to help shape people’s perspectives on how they view the environment. This change in thinking allowed for the passing of stricter laws and penalties for people caught littering. Furthermore, the change in thinking allowed for increased amounts of recycling, which today is commonplace in so many areas. Many of the current environmental movements in existence today grew out of earlier movements such as anti littering. Organizations such as Keep America Beautiful might have initially had a very basic goal, but they laid the groundwork for future environmental movements to tackle more complex issues later down the road.

    I do think overall the anti littering movement has been a good thing, but their success has also contributed to the creation of the illegal dumping issue we are currently facing. Increased regulations on recycling and disposal of hazardous waste might be good for the environment, but they also increase the difficulty for people to discard such items. Restrictions on what can be thrown away or size limits on weekly residential trash pickups can make it hard to get rid of large amounts of waste. Similarly, transporting a truckload of garbage to the local landfill is not a cheap proposition either. Therefore, I believe people, particularly ones facing financial hardships, often take the route of least resistance by dumping their garbage illegally. Furthermore, contractors and construction companies looking to save time and money on disposal cost have also been responsible for illegal dumping of construction materials in cities.

    To combat the growing trend of illegal dumping of garbage in Oakland California, local residents, schools, and churches have combined efforts with the city to catch people illegally dumping and clean up areas where dumping is taking place. The movement in Oakland has worked to increase public awareness and education on the problem, whereas the city has stepped up surveillance and enforcement. According to a February 2017 article by KTVU news, the increased efforts have not really been effective so far . Currently, the city is attempting to promote their free bulky pickup program, which allows for city residents to dispose of large items through the city. I believe this movement is on the right track, yet think more will need to be done for the movement to be a success in the long run.

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  12. In 1958, Pacific Gas and Electric Company planned to build its first commercial nuclear power plant in the U.S.A., setting their sights on a small fishing town in Northern California called Bodega Head. The area is a pupping area for several marine mammals, including sea otters, as well as being part of the Pacific Flyway. P.G.&E. was quickly met with resistance from distrusting locals, who made their living in fisheries and dairies in the area. One resident in particular, Rose Gaffney, was looking to sell her property but refused to sell to P.G.&E., insisting that the land be preserved and used for research or recreation.

    Not only was further development of the area likely to be harmful to the beauty and wilderness of the area, but they planned to build the power plant on top of the San Andreas Fault, making earthquake damage and resulting leakage of nuclear waste a very real possibility. As more people became aware of the possible impacts of nuclear power near them, organizations like the Sierra Club began to be involved. A new group was formed, the Northern California Association to Preserve Bodega Head and Harbor, whose sole purpose was to chase out P.G.&E. on the basis of a lack of public convenience. They organized a demonstration in 1963, releasing 1500 helium-filled balloons to represent the thoroughly contaminating nature of nuclear isotopes (a somewhat ironic demonstration, since those balloons were undoubtedly not eco-friendly). They recruited a geologist to write a report on the risks of the building site. An expert on the movement of tectonic plates, he condemned the site as a disaster waiting to happen. The next year, P.G.&E. withdrew from Bodega Head, granting victory to the local protests.

    This is just one victory of the many and varied environmentalist movements, but it shares several key attributes. This was a reaction of an assorted group of people to a failure on the part of the government to fully analyze the impacts of a private company. The government was pleased because of the immediate monetary gains from having a nuclear power plant in Northern California. However, locals realized it was at the cost of wildlife habitat, natural beauty, possible health and quality of dairy and fish farms, and even at the cost of human health. They took initiative to ensure the protection of their diverse values through promoting awareness and directing their own research on the possible environmental impacts. Thanks to their efforts, Bodega Head remains a pristine, radiation-free town of fiercely protective and eternally proud locals.

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  13. There is a strong history of dam-building in Brazil. The country is home to some of the largest mega-dams in the world. In the global rush to industrialize, the Brazilian economy has been built on hydroelectric power. It’s a resource that the country has in abundance, and using hydroelectric to power its cities and industry significantly reduces the country’s reliance on foreign oil. Dam-building has also created jobs and allowed for the shipping of goods along Brazil’s rivers. And of course, hydroelectric is a comparatively low-emission energy source, and Brazil’s investments in hydroelectric has helped Brazil in its commitment to the Paris climate agreement.

    Massive swaths of land are seized and appropriated for the dams and their reservoirs. This land is forcibly taken from the Indigenous people, who are violently removed from the land is necessary. Vast numbers of people are displaced from their ancestral lands, and those lands are subject to devastating environmental effects. Issues range from the degradation of the rivers, the destruction of habitats, the pollution of local environments, deforestation, fish die-offs, potential species extinction and more. Nearby communities suffer from increased exposure to toxins, reduced food supply, loss of livelihood, and chances of disasters such as flooding in the event of dam failure. There are also further extended impacts from industry and shipping that come with the development of the river.

    The Belo Monte dam in the Amazon is a prime example. It is among largest mega-dams in the world, and its development has been extremely controversial. Although first conceived of in the 1970s, construction did not begin until 2011, and it has entailed a great deal of violence against the local Indigenous people, the Juruna. Their response has been to protect themselves by whatever means are available. They mounted protests, lobbied the government, even seized hostages. But the company, Norte Energia, and the Brazilian government were determined to carry out the project regardless of the severely unjust implications. Although the Juruna went to court over the dam, they ultimately lost. Construction on the dam went ahead, and the first turbines were activated in May of 2016.

    Although the dam was built, the movement against the dam did score one significant victory. The Juruna and other communities living around the dam were able to secure a mandate from the courts demanding that the dam builders provide support and compensation to local Indigenous people. When the company failed to do so, the court levied a fine against its owner, and the dam’s license to operate was temporarily suspended. None of this can remedy the irreversible damage that’s been done to those communities. However, it does provide a precedent for preventing and securing protection from future projects. It also makes those projects more costly, and therefore less desirable. We are seeing this already with the cancellation of yet another planned mega-dam in the Amazon, this time on the Tapajos River. The dam’s license was canceled due to “insurmountable legal obstacles” relating to the forced removal of the Indigenous Munduruku people, and other social and environmental consequences.

    According to Timothy Doyle’s framework, the anti-Bel Monte dam campaign falls under the Indigenous rights and environmental justice movements (issue banners) in the country of Brazil. It’s a reactionary movement triggered in each instance by the seizure and destruction of Indigenous lands, and the spoiling of local environments and local people’s livelihoods.

    Citations:
    https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2017/may/23/why-latin-america-obsessed-mega-dams
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jan/15/brazil-belos-monte-dam-delay-court-indigenous-people
    https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/dec/16/belo-monte-brazil-tribes-living-in-shadow-megadam
    http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-38391377
    http://amazonwatch.org/news/2016/0804-brazilian-government-cancels-mega-dam-on-the-amazons-tapajos-river

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  14. Since the 1980s, it exists in Spain a strong environmental movement which fights for the regulation of fishing in the country. It is well known under the slogan of the campaign “Pezqueñines, ¡no gracias!”, which means: little fish no, thanks. The objective of this movement since its very beginning has been to stop the capture and distribution of fish smaller than the specific size established in the Spanish law (Real Decreto 1615 2005), as well as educating the Spanish society on the dangers of uncontrolled fishing.

    The campaign has been organized by the FROM (Fondo de Regulación y Organización del Mercado de los Productos de la Pesca y Cultivos Marinos), a national organism belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries dedicated to the control and promotion of fishing and seafood consumption until it was legally eliminated in 2012. It is supported by the Spanish government and the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund.

    Since that campaign took place, the word “pezqueñin” expanded throughout the whole country to be used in the context of this environmental protest. Also, more routine controls began to take place, both in official and less regulated markets, involving press communications of law violations and economic fines. Despite its first impact, nonetheless, this campaign has lost a lot of support over the years, and there is no substantial data showing the improvements in the field accomplished thanks to this social effort.

    Under Timothy Doyle’s framework of environmental movements, the previous campaign would be classified under the nation of Spain, the issue banner of fishing controls and the campaign “Pezqueñines, ¡no gracias!”.

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  15. Nation: USA (Oakland, California)
    Issue Banner: Cut CO2 emissions and build a global movement for climate solutions
    Campaign: 350.org

    One of the primary founders of 350.org was author Bill McKibben, writer of earth and The End of Nature which extensively goes over the reasons and the future impacts of global warming. The name 350 is in reference to the 350 parts per million, which is said to be the point of no return as far as amount of CO2 in the air. Though since this organization was founded the carbon dioxide in the air has been as high as 400 parts per million. 350.org is an international environmental organization that focuses on the end of CO2 emissions. They focus on the process of renewable energy to be able to promote change in the world. The last campaign they focused on was trying to end the age of coal in Africa, they called it deCOALonise.AFRICA. This is the first action of their Fossil Free World campaign, which parallel to its issue banner is trying to transition the world to 100% renewable energy. The Keystone pipeline also drew 350.org which directly tried to halt the pipeline by building renewable energy facilities in its path.

    Website: https://350.org

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  16. Nation: U.S.A
    Issue Banner: Prevention of further pollution of Bayview Hunters Point
    Campaign: Southeast Alliance for Environmental Justice

    Because I have lived in the Bay Area my whole life, I felt that it would be best to select a movement that has impacted the Bay Area in order to better understand how my area of residence has been affected by environmental movements. One such local movement was the Southeast Alliance for Environmental Justice which emerged in Bay View Hunters point to save the low income community of Hunters point from environmental pollution. The Southeast Alliance for Environmental Justice was formed out of members of the Bayview-Hunter’s Point community in 1995. Their main goal and reason for creation was to oppose the development of a PG&E powerplant planned to be build near the community which would have pushed pollution levels far past the already dangerous levels found in Bayview Hunter’s point. The original organization came about out of the joint efforts of seven neighborhoods, neighborhoods that had already began to organize separately against the mutual issues they faced. This community, making approximately 4% of the population of San Francisco, was able to create a grassroots organization that represented and reflected their grievances to the status quo. After reaching their goal of shutting down the powerplant through rigorous campaigning, the Southeast Alliance for Environmental Justice slowly started to dissipate. One branch of the SAEJ evolved into a new organization that still runs today, called the Literacy for Environmental Justice (LEJ). The LEJ runs two main projects in an effort to make a difference in their Bayview community area. Their Native Plant Nursery project was created in an effort to have local community gardens within the Bayview area. They employ, and educate teens, and other members of the community, about the different types of plants that will grow sustainably in that area. The LEJ is also trying to restore the Candlestick Point State Recreation park area within their healthy habitats and Lifestyle project. They strongly encourage community members, youth, and other volunteers to join the project to help revamp the park. The Southeast Alliance for Environmental Justice lives on in the legacy of the Literacy for Environmental Justice.

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  17. Nation: U.S.A.
    Issue Banner: Overconsumption of material goods
    Campaign: Reducing Our Carbon Footprint through Minimalism

    Minimalism
    In response to over-consumption, increasing debt, and environmental degradation, individuals in the United States are transforming the ways in which they live through a minimalist approach. The social movement, Minimalism, also known as Voluntary Simplicity, encourages Americans to live simply by consuming resources responsibly and to redefine their relationship with material goods. This movement increases one’s awareness of the impacts of consumerism and is an effort to create alternative ways of living under consumer capitalism (Minimalism Life, 2017).
    Forms of Minimalism
    Minimalism can be expressed in various ways. One form of the minimalist movement is the tiny house movement which has people joining for reasons such as environmental concerns, financial concerns, and a desire for more time and freedom beyond their home (The Tiny Life, 2017). This social movement serves as an example of people’s willingness to downsize the space they live in by consuming less materials for creating their homes. In the article, “What is the Tiny House Movement,” it’s reported that “The typical American home is around 2,600 square feet, whereas the typical small or tiny house is between 100 and 400 square feet. Tiny houses come in all shapes, sizes, and forms, but they enable simpler living in a smaller, more efficient space” (The Tiny Life, 2017). I think the movement of creating smaller living spaces can have a positive impact on individuals’ lives because they are choosing to reduce their carbon footprint and overall impact on the planet by reducing their consumption of resources.
    In another subset of the minimalist movement, people are responding to problems surrounding fast fashion by consuming less clothing; this means that people are purchasing less low-quality items and are instead purchasing better ones which can last up to a lifetime. For example, the fashion industry has grown significantly as a result of promoting overconsumption which they have labeled as fast fashion. In the article, “Minimalist Trend: Will it Save the Planet?” by Renee Julienne Karunungan, Karunungan states, “Consumers are buying 400% more clothes than we did 20 years ago, and the environmental impacts are staggering. In 2014, it was found that 85% of man-made materials found on shorelines were microfibers, synthetic materials used in clothing”(Karunungan, 2018). The resources needed to continuously produce clothing are not only excessive but result in the constant pollution of water systems and other areas of the planet. By minimalists reducing the size of their wardrobes, they are effectively reducing their impact on the planet.

    Minimalism for the Environment
    In developed nations such as the United States, the majority assume the role of consumers resulting in excessive consumption and a greater carbon footprint. Karunungan argues, “consumerism was much higher in rich countries than in poor countries, and that those with the highest rates of consumerism had up to 5.5 times the environmental impact as the world average” (Karunungan, 2018). Developed countries are responsible for consuming the majority of global resources. To further reinforce this argument, Karunungan explains that 20% of the world’s population account for about 80% of global resources and humans are consuming 50% more than is considered sustainable (Karunungan, 2018). Minimalists argue that living more simply by reducing their consumption is combating environmental problems created by the consumer culture.

    Consumer Capitalism
    Under a capitalist system, owning more material goods and living in a larger home is viewed as a form of success. Living in a capitalist system has lead people to maintain the dominant belief that economic growth is a form of progress. However, capitalism fails to consider environmental limits (Leonard, xxv). Capitalism has lead to a consumer culture in the American society because it influences individuals to believe that the more they purchase, the happier and more successful they will be; although, in the book, The Story of Stuff, by Annie Leonard, Leonard refutes this common belief when she claims, “Excessive shopping, acquiring, and consuming makes us unhappy and anxious as individuals (assuming our basic needs are already met) and societies” (Leonard, 152). People are beginning to understand that a greater amount of material goods they possess will not lead to greater success or happiness. The Minimalist movement is attempting to invoke change at an individual level by shifting followers’ views on consumerism to a more sustainable lifestyle which address environmental limitations.

    Critique of the Minimalist Movement
    The minimalist movement includes people who choose to consume less, tend to avoid commercial culture, as well as work and buy less material goods. Critics of the minimalist movement argue that minimalists cannot get cultural traction beyond their communities (Leonard, xxix). Although this movement represents reducing ones’ consumption, not everyone is financially capable of transitioning to a minimalist lifestyle. For example, those with more limited incomes may find it challenging to downsize their living space and invest more money initially when buying longer-lasting material goods (Fagan, 2017). In addition to this, some minimalists reduce consumption for individual reasons such as personal well-being, rather than for environmental reasons.
    While I believe that the minimalist movement is a valuable response to overconsumption because it challenges consumerist ideologies and influences people to adopt a life which involves living within their means, building relationships within their communities, and increasing time for oneself, I think this movement fails to create social change on a larger scale because it is an individualistic approach. I believe the minimalist movement could gain more traction if it were focused on applying its concepts to the social collective in order to change the consumer capitalist system. Minimalists should revise their campaign to include the collective by emphasizing reliance on their community and further building resilient communities.

    Works Cited
    Leonard, A. (2010). The Story of Stuff: The Impact of Overconsumption on the Planet, Our Communities, and Our Health—And How We Can Make It Better. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Fagan, C. (2017). Minimalism: another boring product wealthy people can buy. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2017/mar/04/minimalism-conspicuous-consumption-class
    Minimalism Life. (2017).Minimizing our Impact on the Environment. Retrieved from https://minimalism.life/minimizing-our-impact-on-the-environment/.
    Karunungan, R.J. (2018). Minimalist Trend: Will it Save the Planet?. The Climate Tracker. Retrieved from http://climatetracker.org/minimalism-trend-will-it-save-the-planet/.
    The Tiny Life. (2018). What Is The Tiny House Movement. Retrieved from http://thetinylife.com/what-is-the-tiny-house-movement/.

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  18. Nation: USA
    Issue Banner: Renewable energy for all
    Campaign: GRID Alternatives

    Renewable energy has not always been accessible to everyone, especially people in poor communities. GRID Alternatives emerged during California’s energy crisis and was formed upon the belief that clean energy should be available to everyone, not just those who can afford it. GRID’s mission to not only make solar technology available to everyone, especially underserved communities, but to also make careers in this field possible as well. They started as a local Bay Area nonprofit, helping homeowners in underserved areas get solar panels installed; not only reducing their electric bill costs, but lessening their reliance on non-renewable energy from the grid.

    Since their inception seventeen years ago, their organization has expanded into a nationwide program. In recent years, they have spread internationally into Nicaragua, Mexico, and Nepal. International projects have included providing stand-alone systems to communities in need of electricity. Their organization has improved many families’ quality-of-life tremendously.

    We are currently at a point where the transition from fossil fuels needs to happen faster. Our heavy reliance on fossil fuels is contributing to climate change. There are many people who are capable and unwilling to commit to change, but there are still many who are incapable but willing to commit to change. The transition to renewable energy is a much-needed change. GRID is working to bridge that gap for those who are willing, but unable to transition to clean energy. They have successfully laid a foundation for expanding renewables to include everyone.

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  19. Tina Adewunmi
    Professor Amie

    Nation: Nigeria
    Issue Banner: Protect our Native Land and Water
    Campaign: Ogoni Movement / Indigenous Right.

    Since my country of origin is Nigeria. People of Ogoni has been destroyed by the search for oil which blowouts, overflows, contamination their crops. Communities of the ogoni that had sustained their economy on famers and fishing men, saw that their land has been taking away by multinational oil companies causing harmful environmental degradation. Women and children deathless increased.
    The council of Ogoni Traditional Rulers (COTRA) came out to resolve the difficulty in their community and four of them were slaughtered. River delta kingdom in West Africa started this movement. Nigeria is the number one magnitude Africa’s massive satisfactory identifiable petroleum. The largest oil producer, though the country exited from being 10th to 12th oil in the world. Nigeria shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. In 1990 Rulers of Ogoni indigenous people introduced (MOSOP) for ogoni bill of rights. Movement for the survival of the Ogoni people complaining about the century suffered the environmental destruction and violence that oil extraction brought to the communities. Anticipated by Ken Saro Wawa to challenge the government’s.
    Use of oil profits and abandonment of environmental issues. Ken Saro –Wawa, a Nigeria poet, environmentalist, and Nobel Prize candidate who founded the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni people against corporations in the Niger Delta area. In 1958, Shell was the first oil company that exports oil when the environmentalism was considered low-risk, pollution and high reward as potential. Afterward men and women came out in mass protesting for benefit from their land. No clean water, stable electricity, good roads, for they people that suppose to benefits from the resources. Meanwhile another six rural chiefs killed again by the military government. Villagers were provoked the Ogoni people for shouldered much of the environmental costs of oil movement for the survival of the Ogoni people (MOSOP) In fact, this environmental degradation had special effects on the land and waters which was standard on Ogoni people fight for their land and their lives multinational petroleum industry, especially called the Royal Dutch / Shell for causing environmental damage to the land of ogoni people in his native Rivers State Port Harcourt. From 1991 Ken Saro- Wiwa devoted himself as a minority ethnic group that about 300,000 people suffering. In mid 1992 he broadened the reach of the movement for the survival people of Ogoni. He led the movement particular, he focused on Britain, and because of shell company had one of their biggest headquarters. Sara Wiwa furthermore criticized the destructive impact of the oil industry that the main source of Nigeria’s national revenue planned to the Niger delta region. He claimed greater compensatory share of oil profits for Ogoni. In 1993 as a result of peaceful protest, Shell suspended operations in Ogoni lands.

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  20. Nation: USA (South Los Angeles, California)
    Issue Banner: Repairing dysfunctional food system; transforming food deserts to food forests
    Campaign: Ron Finley Project

    In the recession of 2007 in the United States, a Los Angeles resident began a project that would later be recognized globally as the Ron Finley Project. Named after himself, it is a project that involves the gardening of fresh food in urban communities and more specifically what are known as food deserts. It is called a food desert, because of the limited access to fresh food which results in that population relying on fast food chains for their primary diet. As a result, this issue effects both communities and the environment. Ron Finley started this grassroots project in his neighborhood of South Central when he decided to take the initiative in planting healthy food on public land (guerrilla gardening), because he noticed he had to travel outside of his neighborhood just to get healthy food.

    As his project started yielding results the city decided to interfere, but the support of his community helped the project flourish. Ron Finley’s main goals are: fighting food inequality, environmental sustainability, raise awareness, and increase green space in areas such as his where there are many vacant land opportunities to do so around the United States. The Ron Finley project aims to transform food deserts into food forests while not having to rely on fast food or big agriculture. The success of his project so far resulted in the city of Los Angeles changing laws so that they can now grow on parkways and the expansion his idea is becoming a reality in many cities. His concept of gardening as an “act of defiance” has influenced people around the world to do the same and it seems to be working.

    Links:
    http://ronfinley.com

    https://www.denverpost.com/2017/10/06/ron-finley-gangsta-gardener-denver/

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  21. Desertification is the result of agriculturally fertile land losing its vegetation to an expanding desert. Due to climate change, the Sahara Desert has been aggressively expanding southward. Villages which once bordered the Sahara Desert, now find themselves engulfed in it. Many villages have lost farmland to climate change, completely altering their traditional means of survival. Indigenous populations in the region have fled south, looking for new sources of income. As a result, African villages along the Southern Sahara border have diminished as their populations flee to areas with better income earning opportunities. The Green Wall Project has the potential to revive settlements in Saharan border regions by returning the land to its former fertile state.
    The ‘Great Green Wall of Africa’ is a project with the goal of planting a green wall of trees and vegetation along the southern border of the Sahara Desert. The project started with an ambitious goal, but has largely shifted towards aiding indigenous populations in refining their agricultural techniques. The Green Wall Project uses their resources to facilitate sustainable farming practices, designed to restore native vegetation and ‘greenify’ regions which have been overtaken by the expansion of the Sahara Desert. An increase of planted crops means that soil erosion will occur at a slower rate. Local farmers are offered funds to grow crops in these regions, in addition to efforts by the Great Green Wall Project to plant native trees. The wall may play a crucial role in reversing the effects of desertification in the region, shielding valuable farmland.
    The progress on the wall is slow, but it is an important project in reviving the Sahel region. Slowing the expansion of deserts and returning them to green spaces also signifies an interesting experiment in terraforming against the effects of climate change. Such clever natural solutions play a heavy role in the global fight against the global environmental crisis

    Countries: Sahel Region [Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea.]

    Issue: Desertification and Soil Erosion

    Campaign: The Green Wall Project [http://www.greatgreenwall.org/great-green-wall/#great-green-wall-internal]

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  22. Led by the African Union the Great Green Wall project is a initiative established to fight against desertification and the growing dangerous of global warming in the southern regions of the Sahara Desert. Originally the project was created to fight this widespread belief that the Sahara Desert was expanding into its bordering nations. However, some experts have actually argued that this infact is not true, however desertification and the vast drought and famine within these regions was and still remains a very real problem.
    The Great Green wall project has changed from its original proposal from the African Union in 2007. It originally was to be a wall of trees so to speak stretching out 7700 kilometers which is the length of the Sahara Desert and consisting of about 11 nations . Today The Great Green Wall should be seen more as a “mosaic” as CNN has called and now has about 21 nations involved with the financial support of the World Bank and international governments. Further research has suggested that instead of creating a long line of trees to act as a barrier of sorts tailoring the project to meet each nations agricultural needs might be the best option. For example farmers in Niger used “natural regeneration of the land, using innovative practices such as reviving the roots of plants and trees, and digging “half-moon” pits to store water” CNN.com
    Is important to understand that this project does two very important things at once. The first being its impact on the environmental and the positive effects that it currently has and will have if it continues. In restoring and creating plant life communities also restore and create ecosystems that benefit human life in the long run. The second being its impact on very poor communities and parts of the world.This project along with its protection of the environment also insures that poor communities that are participating benefit immensely from this development. Through adding farming communities to find new and innovative ways to receive the land as seen in Niger this then allows for farmers to profit off of the food they grow and for communities to survive.

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  23. Campaign: Communication For Behavioral Impact Campaign
    Cambodia is one of the most poor countries in the world and more often seen in South east Asia. The living conditions are very poor and unsanitary as the residents try to survive rather than live a luxurious life. The population in Cambodia consists of 14 million people and over half the population are kids, being less than 21 years old. With that said, there are many children suffering from environmental problems and it’s fueling the impact on their public health. These children and their family are exposed to air pollution, water pollution, and most importantly starvation due to the loss of biodiversity. While the loss of biodiversity doesn’t seem like a large issue it’s our most reliable source for survival. Most of our food, clothes, jewelry, medicine, blankets etc derive from animals and plant. Therefore, when an ecosystem in which these animals and plants are in is affected we receive the impact as well. Contaminated water canals kill the fish diversity, contaminate the water which prohibits the people from using it for agriculture and contaminates the health of the people. Access to safe drinking water and Cambodia Climate Change Office. However, there haven’t been any changes so COMBI, Communication for Behavioral Impact decided to help improve the nutritional status for the children. They are aware that they do not have the necessary resources so they will provide food because they want to prohibit more deaths.

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  24. Jacqueline Mister
    2/20/2018
    IR 331

    Environmental Movements Framework

    Nation:UN
    Issue Banner:COP15
    Campaign: UNFCCC

    One major environmental movement that took place is COP15. In December of 2009, the UN’s climate held in Copenhagen, Denmark surfaced large attention around future emission cuts. This conference was the 15th Conference Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. On December 18, 2009 the international media agreed that climate talks were in total chaos. The Copenhagen Accord was drafted by the United States, India, Brazil, and South Africa. In this document, it was admitted to be one of the most extreme challenges of the present day. This could potentially lead to temperatures to below 2 degrees below celsius.

    There were close to 115 world leaders that attended the meeting. Making it easily one of the largest gatherings of world leaders ever outside of the UN. There were more than 40,000 people representing governments, nongovernmental organizations, intergovernmental organizations and more. Developed countries agreed to fund actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by contributing $30 billion for the period of 2010-2012. This agreement helped mobilize the long term finance on the project and build a plan that would last until 2020.

    The main impact on making this change is to negotiate COP15/CMP5. This would advance the infrastructure needed for global climate change and include improvements to the Kyoto Protocol. The Copenhagen Accord expressed a clear intent to constrain carbon short and long term. The key elements include the long term goal of limiting the maximum global average temperature increase to no more than 2 degrees celsius.

    COP 15 was a crucial event in the global climate change crisis. It advances the infrastructure needed to improve the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. This made the Copenhagen Accord which showed strong convergence to options of climate change short and long term. Developed countries provided funds to take actions against reducing greenhouse gas emissions and provided the funds to mobilize long term finance of up to 100 billion dollars per year by 2020.

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