The Greens see the world primarily in terms of ecosystems, and thus concentrate on depletion, damage, pollution, and population growth. They focus on carrying capacity and want to bring about better under- standing of how large the economy can grow before it outstrips its host. Their policy focuses on how many and how much, the number of people, and the amount of impact each person can have upon the environment. Greens are not usually technophobes; most see technology as an important tool to reduce human impact. More recently, some have become interested in free-market mechanisms, and want externalities presently borne by society to be fully integrated into producer costs and consumer prices so that markets become, in David Korten’s phrase, “mindful.” The Greens, and to some extent the Reds, host bigger tents in that they hold a bolder and broader diversity of views. But this also keeps them splintered and self-canceling, as Greens tend to unite their enemies and divide their friends, a good formula for political failure. They are often portrayed as caring less for people than animals, more about halogenated compounds than waterborne diseases.
After participating in the debate and hearing all the different views, arguments, propositions, counterarguments and the overall feedback:
(1) Summarize in 400 words what makes the new project of the Pink Lake City in Senegal a sustainable one according to the value system of the Greens.
(2) Write another 400 words on issues that the city plan fails to address according to the value system of the Greens.
(Sustainable Development in Cities, USP 514 Class Discussion)
Pink Lake City in Senegal is a sustainable project because it is a development where all the necessary amenities are in close proximity to one another. Each stage has its own development and they are all connected together. It reminds me of a small town where there are neighboring schools, shops, city hall, businesses, and housing. It doesn’t seem to be auto-centric so biking and walking is recommended. The two main roads on the site can be used by buses to transport people from one side of the lake to the other. Cities are pushing for a new wave of transportation and this project reduces the amount of cars on the road making it more sustainable.
The new project will bring in people from around the world. The diversity will have a significant impact to the Pink Lake City and will also show improvements to an undeveloped area. The city of Senegal is a couple miles away and it will bring business to that area as well. Tourism will be successful in having a city so close to Dakar, a well-known port city with its rich culture and thriving economy. The area where Pink Lake City is going to be located is the starting point for the Dakar Rally race so it will attract people coming for the race and provide them with hotels and shops. It is a sustainable project with support from many countries and an ascending economy.
This project is sustainable because it will create jobs for the local people. There are around one million people in Dakar and it will benefit them to have more options of where to work and live. Currently the job that is available to the locals where Pink Lake City is located is removing salt from the water. It is a strenuous job and can only be done for a few years. There will be a “brain city” where schools will be available so the locals will have the resources need to be successful.
The Pink Lake City project is not a sustainable project because of its location. It is located on the coast of Africa in the state of Senegal along the equator. It lies on the equator meaning that is it in a very hot area. Air conditioning is needed for all the units, which means that more energy is being used to provide a comfortable living environment. The project does not specify if the developers are going to use solar energy or wind energy.
There is an unnecessary golf course that surrounds the pink lake. In an area that has such high temperature a golf course will need a sufficient amount of water to keep it green. A golf course in the middle of the desert is not necessarily the most sustainable thing to do.
The location of the project is a couple miles away from the major city of Dakar. The project site doesn’t have a transportation system from the city of Dakar to Pink Lake City. Either a freeway or some sort of public transit needs to be put in place. That will take several years to be built and that should have been on the projects proposal. I’m guessing that most of the people that are going to work in the new city will be coming from Dakar so that factor alone makes the project not sustainable. It didn’t look like the development has a public transportation system within the projects parameters.
Another factor that makes this project not sustainable is the sea level rise. The location of the project is along the coast. The high end condos are placed along the coast so they will attract possible buyers. If the water rises like it is expected to all those condos and more will be underwater. Many people wonder why development is created along the water but it’s because of the ocean view. This project could be a successful project but the transportation system needs to be implemented into the project and the golf course should be eliminated or replaced.
Out of all four different colors, each one has different sustainability factors in respect to their ideals. However, after the debate this Monday I am still choosing to be a part of the green party. This is because the green party focuses on development that promotes a sustainable relationship with the surrounding environment, their interest in future technologies, and in free-market mechanisms. First lets talk about their goal for preservation of the surrounding environment and how they might benefit for it. The Pink lake is situated in a somewhat diverse area with the Pacific Ocean to the East, the Pink Lake itself, and the surrounding Sahara Desert. What is exciting to me is that through the preservation of the environment, we can see the creation of jobs and well as energy sources. For example, the building of solar plants and wind turbines would not only create jobs for local residents, but it will also enable the city of The Pink Lake to be self reliant for their energy needs and not need to export oil or things of that nature from other countries.
This brings me to the green parties use of new technologies and there are two that I would like to focus on. First being the implementation of waste-to-energy plants in the city that generates energy in the form of heat and electricity from the primary treatment of waste. Secondly, we can produce energy through the ocean by strategically placing electrical generators in past the shoreline that would produce electricity from wave energy. Implanting both of these practices on a large scale should be very expensive, but their is a way to get around that. Through the use of a particular market based instrument, we can tell developers to put a deposit down on the land and require them to build and operate in sustainable ways in order to get it back. We can use that revenue to fund the initial costs of the energy plants, and if the developers are still up to code five years down the line they get refunded. We can also generate revenue for local matters through eco taxes on environmental wrongs like pollution and extraction. Revenue can also be generated through ambient taxes that regulate levels of pollution in different types of ecosystems. If the green parties goals are completely, it would serve as a sustainable blueprint for developers around the world. And in the light of climate change, it will show the world the possibilities for a sustainable world that we have.
There are several things that I think are lacking in the proposal of the Pink Lake city in Senegal. The first and most obvious in concern to the green party would be the lack of planning for rising sea levels. The exponentially rising sea is something backed with undisputed science, and should not be taken lightly in a city developers eyes. With the proximity of the some of the development so close to the Atlantic ocean, measures like seawall fortification and flood mitigation needs to be on the plan. A second concern of mine would be the existing villages around the Pink Lake, when the city is completed are they going to have a fair spot in its function? It seems to me that the proposal is lacking any plans to the environmental justice concerns that might come along with this project. With the high level income of the potential businesses and residents that would come along with the new Pink City, I find it hard to believe that the extremely low income existing villages aren’t going to be squeezed out.
Something else that I believe is lacking in the Pink Lake City proposal is the missing plans for a public transit system. For a city to be completely integrated it needs to have some form of transport that is open to the public. Without a public transportation system certain areas of the city will be isolated from the rest and middle class citizens will be forced to invest in more expensive and less sustainable means of transportation. The building of a green light-rail system will cater to all of these issues as well as create jobs that will last decades.
Simon Wannehag Hagene
A Green view on Pink Lake City in Senegal
There are a few positive aspects of this project to consider. Firstly, the way they intend to build a city without destructing forests or other greater natural habitats further inland; it certainly promotes what can be done with lands seen as unfit(read: sand dune areas) and pushes a new way of thinking in where to build urban landscapes. Secondly, by building centrally around the lake for salt production, the workers won’t need to travel far, thus decreasing travel emissions from cars for example. When living in the city, they would be able to travel with public transportation, walk or cycle to work, school and other places in the area. There’s a clear goal and forward-way of thinking when it comes to building efficiently through height and closely put together, in order to put more people in less space.
There is plenty of potential for use of renewable energy, all from wave, wind to solar in this place. It has got a very close proximity to the ocean, therefore wave energy would be of great benefit all year round. The same goes with wind power, which could be both on land or as offshore wind power. Senegal is also a very sunny and dry country, thus obviously being a clear winner in terms of solar energy.
Overall, the city commits to creating a space for all kinds of people. It’s planned with business and international cooperation in mind, which may help in our much-needed grasp for green ideas and sustainable end-products. Finally, the potential for renewable energy and focus on education is what could push this project strongly in the right direction.
Unfortunately, this project appears with too many uncertainties in regards to creating a city for a sustainable future. They way it’s planned encourages a behavior of further consumerism with their numerous malls. Although the salt lake would create jobs and income, the signal yet again is to “use up all our world’s resources” the best we can. Which can’t be upheld in the future.
Another issue in a tight and tall city like this, is that it gets hotter in this area, already dry due to its climate. This will require large amounts of air-condition, which in turn leads to unsustainable use of energy. The proximity to the ocean will help, however, not sufficiently. This will also be heavily installed through the resorts for tourists coming in to tackle the hot weather they aren’t used to back at home. Furthermore, all the pools around the city seems unnecessary being so close to the beach, especially considering its dryness and the city’s need for substantial amounts of water.
The pollution may grow to an unhealthy level due to all the roads planned both within and outside the city. It seems to promote the car as the main means of transportation, wherein the focus should have been on investing in new, less harmful ones like light rail, bikeways, trains and other. It does sound very modern having a so-called “international city,” though that promotes building of airports, creating even further pollution nearby as well.
The huge spaces allotted for stadiums are both non-sustainable and not socially just for the people. The golf courses presents the exact same problem. Instead, why not build more parks and create natural settings for wildlife and the whole city’s population? Not only for those who can afford going to the already-expensive stadium contributing to possible traffic congestion around the city. The trend of planning seems to be about putting the money and profit above sustainability and social justice.
The solutions we need should be pinned towards localizing food production, create larger green spaces, make renewable energy the main components in the city’s planning, bike lanes and less roads for cars. Further one would need to combine neighborhoods better, in order to promote a greater social life and local democracies within them. Without doubt, the initial thought was that this looks very much alike any other city we’ve all experienced. Considering this is a project built over a twenty-five-year period, the city planners have to rethink what a city is and instead build sustainably from the ground up.
The project of Pink Lake City in Senegal is sustainable according to the value system of the Greens for a few reasons. First off, each of the five sections of the city is designed for multi use. Regardless of where one lives in the city they would have easy access to resources, creating a self-sustaining network of buyers and sellers. The city plan was also mindful in it’s design around the lake. There is a substantial amount of space between the lake itself and where the development begins. This allows for the lakes natural processes and surrounding ecosystem to go almost undisturbed. Pink Lake City would extend all the way around Pink Lake and stretch to the Atlantic Coast. The images from the project depict a couple of ocean jetties. They serve to protect the shoreline from the Atlantic, by acting as a barrier against erosion from currents, tides, and waves. Placing a city near the beach will increase human interaction with the beach, and can accelerate the erosion and degradation of the beach. By preemptively placing jetties in the ocean, the city planners have created a sustainable system that will ensure the longevity of the city’s beaches. The project also allocated certain areas of the city to be green spaces, which allow for the natural ecosystems to coexist with the city. The green spaces can be home to a multitude of plants and animals in addition to providing shaded areas for community interaction. With all of the attributes listed above, Pink Lake City in Senegal could be viewed as sustainable through a green lens.
The city plan fails to address a handful of issues according to the system of the Greens. The plan placed great emphasis on becoming one of the major cities of the world without any mention of how the city was to be powered. According to the greens, in order for a city to be sustainable it must concentrate on reducing as much damage, depletion and pollution as possible. If the city were to be run on fossil fuels or any other form of non-renewable energy, the city could not be viewed as sustainable. By relying on dirty energy, the city would be contributing to the overall damage, depletion and pollution of the world. Also, the city as planned now failed to mention a sustainable method of transportation. Other than the two main roads that go through the city, there seems to be no plan in place for sustainable and reliable transportation. With no mention of bike paths, trams or bus systems, there will be a heavy reliance on cars within the city. This will also be cause for congestion along the city’s roads and increase air pollution. Also, there was no mention of water resource management. The plan failed to address the growing concern of having enough fresh water. There was no mention of water recycling plants or plans to reuse and conserve fresh water. Because this is an entirely new city, the planners should be inventing new ways to create a self-sustaining city rather than sticking to old notions of what cities should look like. Overall, the city has the potential to be an innovative and sustainable city through the green lens. It would just require some major changes to its design.
I was originally part of the White team, but I switched over to the Green team. The Pink Lake Senegal Project embodies the values with the Greens as the group present much of what a sustainable city carries with it. This project is of the first of its kind and have many green connections, which were Green facilities like a Sports Center, a Wellness Center, an educational Center, a Business Center, residential life and a cultural center. This project alone does have sustainable features like the overall impact this project can have on the environment. Even the Green team proposed a metro line or monorail that can provide accessible transportation within and around Pink Lake in Senegal. This project brings the community inside into a green level-playing field which could grow into a big mega city in the future. After its completion in 2030, I would say the Pink Lake Senegal Project would be a world class project all on its own. The additional features which this project brings is also “mindful” with the process of each part of the project. These parts of the project finished overtime, would create and make a sustainable city by embodying different characters within one project area. On a macro scale, it allows business growth with more educated communities. On a micro scale, it allows increase in tourism and increase in social development within the community.
I think the Pink Lake Senegal Project does have “mindful considerations to make it a sustainable environment.” But, there are subtle failures in this project which I will address. Pink Lake, from watching Youtube videos is a resource grab area for local individuals within the community. Pink Lake is rich in salt which is extracted from the numerous profitable resources that the lake offers. This project would hurt the relationship of the many workers who extract salt and produce livable working wages. I rather think of this project as a “green” mass produced capitalist driven project that does not blend in with the needs of the immediate community. This project when then be seen to be unequitable in terms of the social aspect and economically infeasible since it would take several years to finish and implement this project overtime. This Green view must work on the environmental and also some parts of social and economic for it to be sustainable. This project fails to address the broader diversity goals which it meant to bring and also fails to address the future environmental impacts like sea level rise. Also, the project does not bring in or it is not mindful of the people whom surround the Pink Lake. Moreover, much of this project should also work of the design and details as well.
The Senegal Pink Lake project represents Green values in the following ways: By being a primarily compact development, Pink Lake City conforms to a density threshold that promotes walking, a lower environmental footprint, and could serve as a base to build out an extensive public transit system. Because of its relatively condensed size, the zero emission human powered means of transportation known as bicycling, would be a perfect fit. There is no need for automobiles in such a community, especially when many Senegalese cannot afford one. Pink Lake City can truly be a 21st Century city without vehicles. Also, it has an ideal geographical location on the Atlantic Ocean cools off the Equatorial sun’s hot rays, while also providing a way to tap into plentiful solar power. Additionally, this location confers to Pink Lake City the possibility of repurposing wave power and use in electrical generation. Another method of energy extraction that is not as well-discussed is waste repurposing, turning a previously useless byproduct into needed energy reclamation. We collectively believe that thousands of green jobs can be created with the implementation of renewable energy sources. We the Greens also support Pink Lake City’s design choice of incorporating many green spaces throughout the city streets. Nature benefits us health-wise by providing a space for recreational activities, oxygen production, taking carbon out of the atmosphere, and psychologically as well. Another added benefit of this project is the establishment of a localized economy. A self sustaining economy does not need to rely as much on shipped goods from thousands of miles away, lessening the carbon footprint. On top of all that, we can implement an eco tax on goods and penalize products that come in from unsustainable origins. Additionally, Pink Lake City would be part of the greater Dakar Metropolitan Area, with the possibility that some of the projects’ ideas will rub off on an important West African hub.
Pink Lake City has the added bonus of being an international diplomatic hub, bringing the world’s critical attention to matters of sustainability. When global diplomats observe that an environmentally friendly place can be very successful, it may serve as a multiplier effect, burgeoning the expansion of similar cities.
We also think that that Pink Lake City can serve as a model for future cities designed around sustainable methods, which is why we as Greens want to do whatever is possible to make this project “greener”, to show the rest of the world that this type of development is not only feasible, but desirable and efficient as well.
There are a number of factors why the Pink Lake City project is not as sustainable as it could be. The plan itself has a lot of potential, but it is just that, potential. Most of the promotional video focused on the different “cities” composing Pink Lake City as a whole, and what would take place in them, such as Cultural, Business, Arts, Diplomatic etc. While that is all well and good, the environmental concerns were not really addressed other than tacking on an extra green space to a “wellness center”. If this project only focuses on the logistical planning aspects but only throws in environmental concerns as an afterthought, then the Greens cannot accept the plan as is. An Environmental Impact Report (EIR) is necessary to determine the impacts of these so-called cities and how they are supposed to be fully integrated. One issue is the planning of this project around a UN World UNESCO protected site. While wildlife are not an issue in a salty lake, why is this development taking place around a protected area and has anyone addressed building around it will affect Pink Lake and the surrounding coast line? In a time of ever rising sea levels, is this the wisest allocation of resources right at the ocean’s edge? While, the dense structuring is plus, why is it separated into five specific regions such as discredited modernist twentieth century planning, requiring longer commutes? Other than giving us a map of their road network, the planners did not specify how transportation would be implemented and integrated. From an Environmental Justice perspective, putting middle and lower income housing next to industrial areas and putting upper classes near the cleaner coast is inconceivable. How would these developments affect the citizens who already call this region their home? Would they be further gentrified out of the area once elite diplomats move into their seaside resort? We as Greens cannot accept this built in inequality. The area must be open to all and investments need to be made in green technology jobs for the populace to have a way of advancing economically. We also question how Pink Lake City can truly be sustainable if it is shipping in goods and services from outside the region. We understand they are trying to position themselves as a Global City, but local concerns need to take precedent. Ultimately, a greater emphasis needs to be put on how this project affects its local environment rather than untested pie in the sky ideas.
Argument Pro-Pink Lake Development.
Pink Lake City will have continuous green spaces, be an education hub, be a spot of political stability, encourage sports and art, wellness community, and a Master Planned City.
The continuous green space reduces run-off from storms. The continuous green spaces would be a place where residents and visitors can enjoy open spaces and be a place to work out and gather. The concept of continuous green space connects the mountains to the Atlantic Ocean and makes for a continuous ecosystem.
When the development becomes an education hub, the ideas come from that comes from the educated population promotes sustainable development that respects social equity, economic vitality, and environmental integrity. The education hub also infuses ideas and creativity to solve the present problems of the development and change plans to adjust for the ideas that improve the future development. The more educated people present in the development, they can advocate preventing environmental injustices from settling into the community.
If the location of the development harbors political stability, it is an opportunity for the development to not look like a gated community and be welcoming to all people instead of just the economically privileged.
When the development encourages sports and arts, it helps the residents to stay out of trouble and maintain fitness instead of obesity that plagues the Global North. The arts bring forth activities the encourage visual design of public spaces and public walls. If art is discouraged from the public walls, the wall becomes an open space for painting a picture of a dictator or tagging by vandals.
A development can be a wellness community if sidewalks are included, cross walks are painted, local policies enacted and enforced for car drivers to grant pedestrians and joggers the right of way, and also the development needs to include bike tracks or lanes on high traffic roads. If the mentioned factors are included in the design and development of the project, obesity rates will be lower in the community compared to the economically privileged population or residents of the Global North.
The community will be a successful Master Planned community if all stake holders are included. If all stake holders are included, the plan can be adjusted to make sure all benefit and no-one is harmed through environmental injustices.
When the Pink Lake project gets built, all forms of transportation needs to be included and not adapt the Global North’s car centric policies. The plan need to encourage people to walk if destinations are less than 1 kilometer. If destination is 1 to 5 km, bicycling needs to be encouraged, if destinations are greater than 5 km, the plan needs to include Light Rail or Bus Rapid Transit. The plan needs to include medium speed rail from Dakar Airport, Downtown Dakar, and to Pink Lake.
Against Pink Lake Development:
Pink Lake City development claims to be an education hub or brain city, be a spot of political stability, encourage sports and art, wellness community, African Business City, African Cultural City, Health Care Resort, United Nations Center, and a Euclidean Zoning Master Planned City.
When the development claiming to be an education hub or brain city, would that be only for the privileged foreigners and locals of priveldge, or would the plan benefit the local national Senegalese population? The brain city concept can also be exclusionist of people of less education level.
With the claim for political stability, would that mean only for Pink Lake and not for the rest of the nation? Political stability only in Pink Lake can bring on the perception of the gated community idea, that excludes people who think of live differently or people stuck in unstable parts of the country.
When sports and arts are in place at the new development, would that mean the privilege only extends to the economically privileged or generally to all population. Would the sports and arts only benefit the visiting Global North foreigners and exclude the local nationals?
The concept of African Cultural City seems artificial like Japan Center in the Fillmore part of San Francisco. The African Cultural City seems more of a sanitized amusement park concept of Senegal Culture, when a person can get real Senegal Culture in organic parts of Dakar.
The idea of a United Nations Center resembles a privileged foreigner enclave of the development which seems to exclude the Senegalese local nationals.
Health Care Resort seems to be another idea similar to the movie Elysium, where the privileged gets their healthcare and the rest the country persons are excluded, due to lack of insurance or ability to pay. The concept resembles a place where a person who desiers a gender reassignment surgery for cheaper prices.
The Master Plan resembles Euclidean Zoning from the Global North. Too much separation of uses. The plan should have been an organically built city which respects the natural environment. The plan unfairly places industrial uses in middle class area of the development.
It seems that the plan lacked an Environmental Impact Analysis. The analysis needs to consider the endangered species present, human and built environment impact, also how the development will impact Pink Lake’s present status or beauty, and how sea level rise will impact the community and plans to deal with the rising sea level.
The plan doesn’t address the transportation plan or how energy will be generated to the location. With the humid weather, energy for air conditioning will be a must.
The development resembled the hype on South Park episode of SoDoSoPa. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=miXMWJyOdgw
The new project of Pink Lake City in Senegal is sustainable because of several features stated in the video. One of it being the African Culture City concept, in this concept, they mentioned villages dedicated to African arts and culture as well as african agriculture. This is sustainable because it will teach citizens sustainable agriculture practices and can potentially educate people of the use of native plants and practices that will most be beneficial to the land. The Green group focuses on reducing the human impact and what great way to do so than educating people about sustainable agriculture practices. This will teach the city’s residents to be mindful about the vegetations they will grow.
Another feature that is sustainable is the density of the city. The layout of the city is very compact which will possibly lead to a construction of an easy and efficient transportation system and or a system of bicycle route since everything will be close together. This transportation/bicycle system aligns with the values of the Green group because it will reduce the amount of CO2 emissions it’s residents will put into the atmosphere.
The geography around the proposed site shows large bodies of water which can potentially be used to harness renewable energy to be used by the city. For example,technology can be made where the waves from the ocean can be turned into a source of energy to power the city. This can make the Pink Lake city self-sustaining and overall avoid using up our already low resources of fossil fuels. From the plan, there was also a very well integrated system of parks which will lower the microclimate of the city. This is very important because the project is located near the equator where the climate is hot and humid.
The project also proposed a City Wellness in the development stage where they planned to have programs to make the city more sustainable. It did not specify what type of programs would be presented but if the purpose of the program is to educate people about sustainability then it aligns with the green value system.
Overall, the project Pink Lake City is sustainable in terms of the effort to educate people which will help overall raise awareness about the environmental problems. The layout of the project has potential to be sustainable if resources around it are used properly such as the bodies of water.
There are many issues the city plan fails to address. One of the issue is where the energy that will power the city originate from. Will it come from fossil fuels? Are they going to try harnessing energy through renewable resources? There were no indications in the project what they planned for the energy. Another issue is transportation within the city and the cities surrounding it. Although, I mentioned that the density is perfect for an efficient transportation system the city plan failed to provide how people will get around and travel from city to city. Will there be a train or just a freeway or both? Another issue is capacity. The city plan didn’t specify the capacity of the Pink Lake City.
Pink Lake Development
1. When considering the green team it is hard to visualize any type of sustainability of this city for future development and expansion. There are not many aspects laid out that have anything to do with the ecosystem, pollution, and depletion although I could many of these things happening is not managed correctly and supported by the communities around it. When I think of human impact on the environment this particular project seems to not present any ways that they can promote a healthy city. Although if done correctly I think that this city could probably be sustainable and have a significant economic value as well a representation of what future coastal cities could be redeveloped as. Technology could play a significant roll in the progression of this city to allow it to become more sustainable. This project is only sustainable because it allows a lot of interest for environmentalist and finding new ways through the coastline, mountain ranges, weather, and light to create sustainable energy. Overall I did not see this project outlining any type of progressive material towards sustainability. In many ways it only showed how it was going to be designed and what aspects where going to draw more attention from outsiders. This project is not sustainable in many ways based on how it is developed either, communities are almost all separated and focused in on the inner city. Making it difficult for transit, commerce and overall value to people’s availability and options.
2. This project from the start did not outline any type of transportation system, economic system, government, or display any values that had to do with pollution or expansion and population increase. Overall I saw that the most significant thing it was lacking was a description of how it was networked with any other types of cities. This being because that would allow for economic stimulation when thinking of work and marketing through business as well as if there were going to be hubs for urban sprawl or if it was all going to be confined in this little mapped plan. The plan was very short and did not have very many details underlining the development process and how they were going to start the population. It seems as if this plan was based for more of a vacation hub and for import exports type of business. Possibly if I had a bit longer period of time to see a project layout and they took time to describe the pros and cons this would be much easier to examine. From what I learn I noticed that it is very easy for planners to get carried away in the positives before for examining the negatives on the same scale. I also noticed when discussing these principles many people in the class had different opinions that goes to show that not only is ever aspect or in this case (color) important. It allows for a fluint ideology of what a good city should be able to display. I thought this was a great activity because it allowed each group to think of the project in one perspective. Possibly it could have been more easily done if it was for and against.